Saturday, March 14, 2020
Verbal Aggression Essays - Behaviorism, Aggression, Free Essays Verbal Aggression Verbal aggression is message behavior which attacks a person's self-concept in order to deliver psychological pain.(Infante, 1995) Studies of verbal aggression have focused primarily on children and adolescents in educational and social settings. Very few studies were found to examine verbal aggression in adults in the workplace.(Ebbesen, Duncan, Konecni, 1974) The consequences of verbal aggression in the workplace can lead to social isolation, job related stress, health related problems, as well as problems in career advancement. It therefore should be considered important, for the individual and management, to identify and address the causes of verbal aggression. This program attempts to understand verbal aggression by 1) identifying the various functions of verbal aggression. 2) identifying the antecedent conditions of verbal aggression. 3) Avoiding the antecedent conditions of verbal aggression. Method Subject The subject, Shirley J., is a 49 year old African American female. Shirley J. has several advanced degrees and is employed as a school psychologist in a metropolitan school district. She is married with two adult children. The subject readily agreed that the target behavior, verbal aggression, is a problem as it interferes with her relationships with others. She was enthusiastic in her desire to reduce, if not eliminate, this behavior. It would seem that self-monitoring for verbal aggression and antecedent control would be valuable as it would allow for consistent avoidance of verbal aggression. As a school psychologist the subject was very familiar with the basic principles of applied behavioral analysis and frequently offered programmatic suggestions. A behavioral contract was developed jointly between the therapist and subject. The contract outlined the target behavior, success criteria, and individual responsibilities of the therapist and subject. (see Appendix A) Apparatus A basic checklist was used to document the frequency of verbal aggression on a daily basis. The checklist was designed to track only the occurrence of the behavior. It was felt by the therapist that the content of the verbally aggressive message would be too open for subjective interpretation and that no meaningful data would be gained from such documentation. In addition the subject made frequent comments of significant success or failure in avoiding verbal aggression for discussion with the therapist. The weekly discussions were used to evaluate the appropriateness of the procedures used and make any necessary adjustments to the program. Procedure For the first two weeks of the program no intervention was applied. Given that the subject self-reported that verbal aggression was a problem it was important to determine if the frequency of the behavior merited intervention. Therefore, the subject documented the daily frequency of verbal aggression. The results of the baseline period revealed a high rate of verbal aggression. (see Appendix B) Given the results of the baseline data as well as the demanding, often stressful, nature of the subjects job, it was mutually agreed that reducing verbal aggression would be the focus of the program. Verbal aggression was defined as cursing, yelling, and screaming at others. The agreed upon goals of the program was to decrease verbal aggression by 75% of baseline for four consecutive weeks. Treatment would consist of identifying and avoiding the antecedent conditions to verbal aggression. Avoidance of the antecedents is considered less restrictive, more proactive, and most effective. During the initial consultation it was determined that the antecedent conditions included, but was not limited to: work stress, time of day, verbal behavior of others (ie. tone of voice, inflection of voice and content of conversation, etc.), and non-verbal behavior of others (ie. facial expression, body posture, eye contact, etc.). In addition, the subject was required to self monitor for the following antecedents: clenched fists, tight jaw, rapid heart beat, and the emotions of anger, frustration and disappointment. Lastly, it was suggested by Infante (1995) that appropriate strategy must be taken to prevent verbal aggression from escalating. Successful avoidance of the antecedent conditions consisted of removing oneself from stressful situations, when possible, as well as not responding verbally when provoked. Weekly consultation revealed that verbal aggression was most often used to: 1) Escape demand situations. 2) Avoid demand situations. 3) Relieve job stress. The subject was to document the frequency of verbal aggression and record the circumstances of significant success or failure during the work week for discussion at weekly consultation sessions. A schedule of
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Mental Health Parity Act In September 2007, the United States Senate collectively passed the Mental Health Parity Act (MPHA) of 2007. If the Act passes, it will ensure that private health insurance plans provide equal coverage for mental health as it would for physical health. In which case, insurers cannot establish different financial requirements for mental health, such as deductibles, co-pays, annual and lifetime limits. Thus, health plans will no longer ban discriminatory limits on number of outpatient visits and days of inpatient coverage for mental health care services, and prevent state laws affecting financial requirements and treatment limitations for mental health care services.The concept of parity means equal treatment for mental health services as it would for medical and surgical services. Parity is important because it demonstrates desirability for policyholders to seek mental health treatment, thereby taking a preventative care approach that will possibly reduce costs at many levels. Like ac cess to general medical care, access to mental health care can play an important role in whether people receive the treatment.Maryland Health Insurance Plan Federal Press Annou...Most health insurance includes mental health benefits. However, such benefits are more limited than medical/surgical benefits especially as it relates to the number of visits covered, higher patient cost-sharing requirements, and limits on total expenses covered by the plan.According to the American Psychological Association (APA), two third of 44 million Americans with mental disorders either are under-treated or receiving no treatment at all. Moreover, recent research indicates that more than one out of four American has a diagnosable mental disorder, but the majority cannot afford treatment (Maxfield, Achman, Buck, Teich, 2007, p. 83). In 1999, approximately 76% of the United States population had some mental health benefits (Maxfield, Achman, Buck, Teich, 2007, p. 94). Yet, less than half (about 44%) of the U.S. population had mental health benefits...
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Budgeting as a form of management control - Essay Example Budgeting is a very useful tool in businesses. The benefits to be gained from budgeting are numerous and are available to all companies inclusive of Production Solutions Ltd. It ensures the achievement of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives (BPP 1998) by forcing managers to carry out an assessment of what may happen in the future and set detailed plans for achieving the targeted results for the functional departments in the organisation. It also takes into consideration the problems that are likely to be encountered. Budgeting communicates ideas and plans (BPP 1998) so as to ensure that each employee that is affected by the plan is aware of his or her role in helping the organisation to achieve its goals. Communication can either be two-way or one-way. Two-way communication allows for dialogue until an understanding exists of what exactly needs to be done. One way communication takes place when management gives instructions or orders to subordinates to perform a task.Budgeting can a lso coordinate activities among the various departments at Production Solutions Ltd to ensure that there is full integration of the efforts to achieve the goals that have been set. In this respect the sales expected will be communicated in the sales forecast and the production department will base its production plans on the sales forecasted. The purchasing department will plan its purchases based on the amount of buffer stock it needs to maintain at all times and in conjunction with the production plan. Budgeting can provide a framework for responsibility accounting (BPP 1998) by making the different functional departments or budget centres at Production Solutions Ltd responsible for achieving their plans for the operations under their control. Budgeting can also establish a system of control by way of managers comparing the actual results with the plan (BPP 1998). Any deviation from the plan needs to be investigated and appropriate actions taken to close the gap between the result s and the plan. Additionally, budgeting can be used to motivate employees to improve their performance by offering them rewards if they meet their targets. BPP 1992 suggests that two levels of attainment should be set so as to challenge employees. Ã¢â¬Å"A minimum expectations budget and a desired standards budget which provides some sort of challenge to employeesÃ¢â¬ . The appraisal system lets them know how badly or how well they are doing and what they can do to improve performance if they are performing below standard. The cash budget will indicate cash surplus and cash requirements. Therefore, management can make decisions on how to address the shortfall where this exist. The cash budget for the Company suggests that it may not be a good idea to carry out the plans noted as it could place the company in a worse position than it is in currently. The increased sales and the resultant changes in the credit terms will affect the profits and the cash flow position respectively. At tention should be placed on preparing a master budget which will link or integrate the various functions in the organisation. A master budget is an essential management tool that communicates managementÃ¢â¬â¢
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Aboriginal perspectives and science - Essay Example The concept of indigenous science is very unfamiliar to most Canadian education systems. The education policies that was developed by the Ontario first nation was to provide a framework that will provide institutions with a strategic policy natural systems context within which Ministry of Education and school boards can work together to improve the academic performance of the non-aboriginal students. As described by Michell, Herman and Yvonne in ``Learning Indigenous science from place`` (pg. 6), Ã¢â¬ËAboriginal perspective of indigenous science is a study of natural system that contributes to a holistic view of the environment and the role of human beings in the environmentÃ¢â¬â¢. This holistic nature of the indigenous science is composed of physical, intellectual, affective and spiritual domains of learning. For this reason the aboriginal community have wished to incorporate cultural teaching within mainstream or other institutional curricula, but there was a concern that was r aised based on the need to help universities systems to prepare students to choose their careers within scientific discipline. The framework provided in http://library2.usask.ca/native/ library website, also clarifies the roles and relationships of the ministry to Inuit students achieve their education goals and close the gap in academic achievement with the non-aboriginal students. A guideline emerged from a certain research project that aimed at fostering collaboration among a diverse range of group of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal educators and scientist. The indigenous study has experienced acknowledgement within traditional ways and cultural practices as a method for sharing, learning, and collecting knowledge development and maintenance. The purpose of the group of Aboriginal students, educators and scientist is to begin the conservations to envision, discuss, and to clarify a philosophy and framework of aboriginal science. The aboriginal people of the 21st century have been so diverse such that their personal beliefs and ideologies as to any other cultural and ethnic group makes it important for educators to realize that these people have traditionally held and have maintained unique perspective that is much different from that of non-aboriginal peoples. The implications of the research have been anticipated to nature all learners in science schools regar dless of their cultural background. Aikenhead (2006, Pg. 7), states that the believe of incorporating Aboriginal perspectives in the school of science will help nature studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ and educatorsÃ¢â¬â¢ in understanding and appreciating indigenous knowledge systems that have not that been a major part of many institutions curriculum in the past. The primary connections of indigenous perspectives framework is aiming to accelerate science and literacy learning outcome for indigenous students and increase non-aboriginal students teachers awareness and understanding of the indigenous perspectives. It also acknowledges the contribution of those involved with development of the indigenous perspectives framework which is based on national research findings and collaboration with Aboriginal groups. Discussion Aboriginal people have viewed themselves to be part of intimately connected individuals and therefore they have acted as the guide to the way in which people and visitors in need a re to be helped traditionally. There have been a lot of aboriginal resources that have described and indicated the role of indigenous science. The need to integrate aboriginal perspectives into the science curriculum in most countries is clear and immediate. Aboriginal resources are used to help understand the knowledge of indigenous
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
As It Is in Heaven - Essay Example At the beginning, the presence of the church environment gives an assumption that everything is going well in this society. It is not until every individualÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy is revealed that the viewer realizes that family issues are a society planning issues that has remained largely unresolved. When Daniel sought refuge in his home village, he is received by a church minister who hands him a bible. Daniel is used to capitalistic life in town, and he tries to shun social life as seen when he turned down the ministerÃ¢â¬â¢s invitation to a diner. However, the pressure from the church choir and music in him is too high and he accepts to join and train the choir members. The armature singers use the music to placate their familial challenges. In their chapter seven article Massey and Denton (1993) start by quoting Pam Grier who analyzes that people are hopeless in the society because their daily lives are challenging, hence prompting them to go to some sort of entertainment. In this film, music is the outlet that the choir members chose to indulge in to release their live stresses. David teaches them how to sing as they listen to their hearts, how to perfect their vocals and how to cooperate and not compete in their common endeavors. This goal is of great importance because it symbolizes the way family institution should function in the society. It is a contrast of how the families in the movie have been operating and how women have been enduring their problems. For instance, Daniel is caught in a web of attention when several women from the choir start competing for his attention. His attention was caught by Lena, a young attractive girl in the choir. As their love grows, the personal problems of the other choir members confront him. This is a microcosmic example of the family issues in the society. For example, Inger the ministerÃ¢â¬â¢s wife also secretly admires Daniels because she is sexually repressed. The woman is enduring a failed sexual relationship w ith her husband. This is a depiction of how the church has failed to plan family matters. The extreme of this irony is when the church minister becomes jealous when the choir starts succeeding. He is threatened by the unity and the zeal of the choir. He tries to shatter their dreams but he failed and this failure leads to his ultimate nervous breakdown. Daniel engages the choir members into lessons that liberate them, and the first person to be set free is the ministerÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. Inger later goes to her husband and tells him that she no longer believes in sin. She claimed that their marriage is spoilt by the religion, which was brought to the community by outsiders. Gabriella is a highly talented singer in the choir, but her husband always batters her and the village is not concerned; everyone is minding his own business. It was GabriellaÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, Connie who schooled with Daniel and drove Daniel out of the village. Connie is later left by his wife and he blames Daniel a nd the choir for influencing his wife wrongly. He attacks and assaults Daniel, an act that sends him to jail. Individual freedom and the society relation with members The movie gives an excellent depiction of how individual freedom is compromized by the society members. At the beginning of the movie, the viewer meets Daniel who has already returned to his village after
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Your task is to develop a model which could be used to inform an economic evaluation - Essay Example It can be seen that the maximum amount of money is spend on the diagnostic procedure- echocardiogram. Around 142.16 $ is spend for this. Then the model included other primary evaluations in health care for the particular disease as ECG, TFT, INR, FBC, coagulation studies and medication. The total cost incurred for the primary visit is 418. 08. There have been reviews on the increased cost of ECG on adolescents and neonates. It is estimated that cost effectiveness was at peak between [,000 in 14 year olds and $ 204000 in screening done in 8 year children for the life saved per year. (Saul, Samuel & Gidding 2014). Both warfarin and aspirin are anti-coagulants, which are administered to prevent the clot formation in the blood vessels of heart, which may lead to cardiovascular diseases. Warfarin and aspirin were administered in patients at risk of developing heart problems. Risk category included obese patients, patients with diabetes mellitus. It may seen that, the cost spent for visit of general practitioner without the administration of any medication and with the prescription of aspirin was the same (552,992 $). The cost spent for speciality visit was same for all three categories. The use of diagnostic procedures like ECG and Echocardiogram spent the same amount. The amount of money spent on TFT is same for all the three categories. No amount of money was additionally spent on INR, FBC, and coagulation studies on the administration of aspirin and warfarin. When the total cost was estimated along with the administration of medication and frequency of use, less amount of money was spent when aspirin was used for prevention. After deploying this model for three years, the end result was found use of aspirin prevented the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases in comparison with administration of warfarin and without any intervention. This indicates that this model may be used in the prevention of
Friday, January 31, 2020
Annotated Bibliography Essay In this assessment I shall describe an Annotated Bibliography on Autistic Spectrum Disorder. The important factors of inclusion in educational settings will be discussed and how parents as partners can help childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Autism is a condition which affects childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development their whole life. Autism is a brain disorder that is diagnosed normally in early childhood and autistic children can show bad behaviour and can become fairly aggressive and temperamental. Many education settings have provided additional support to young children alongside other children, however this is to include an inclusive practice. Children with autism have many difficulties in three main areas: 1) Social Awareness Find making friends and interacting with others very difficult, and do not always make eye contact when someone is talking to them. 2) Language Communication Find it hard to explain how their feeling and what their thinking and they also communicate in high pitch tones and have severe delay in speech. 3) Imagination Ã¢â¬â Do not always understand that others have thoughts and feelings and have limited imagination. Reid (2005, p.29) quotes Ã¢â¬Å"There may also be evidence of obsessive and inappropriate behaviours. Some students within this spectrum may also have limited imaginative thoughtÃ¢â¬ . In society before, children with autism were misunderstood and their negative behaviour was labelled and because of their negative behaviour children were punished frequently. During that time there was no guidance and support available for children with autism from the government and local authorities. There was none specialised equipment/resources for children to learn and develop further, which would help with this particular disability. There are many barriers for children with autism in mainstream schools like adapting activities, schools may not have enough space and specialised equipment for making the activity adaptable. Children may have certain needs to be tended to so staff need to be trained to deal with children with autism, so some staff would need further training. However, another barrier could be that the parents do not admit that their child has autism, so parents do not attend meetings with staff and acquire the right guidance and support. Some parents may feel that their child is not normal, as the community they come from might have an ideal image of a family, for instance referring to a child who has perfect physical appearance. The medical model sees society or a practice to cure a disability to fit into society, and the social model sees that the child is not the problem, but the attitudes towards disability is the problem. Adults need to provide children with a safe and enabling environment for them to learn and develop in, so children with autism should be treated equally and fairly, like all children and must feel included in their environment. Meanwhile, when providing activities for children with autism adults must give children time for themselves and let them explore, so they can learn at their own pace. Reid (2005, p. 29) states that Ã¢â¬Å"It is important to allow for opportunities that will enable the student some time on his/her ownÃ¢â¬ . However the adult should also involve other children when doing a specific activity for the child with autism, so the child does not feel alone, even though children with autism prefer to play alone. The adult should support and encourage the child and help them complete the activity, by helping the child using hand in hand contact for example the adult holding the childÃ¢â¬â¢s hand etc. The adultÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to talk to the children slowly and calmly, and use simple words so they understand and an effort should be made towards them so they feel the sense of security. Vygotsky was a theorist and his theory was on the Zone of Potential Development (ZPD), his theory stresses the importance of when a more knowledgeable adult/child helps a less knowledgeable child, so by helping him/her complete the task he/she could not done alone, he called this ZPD. Vygotsky saw that adults need to be involved with children strongly. Lindon (1998, p.66) clearly states Ã¢â¬Å"He saw early language as an important social tool for children which brought them deliberately into contact with othersÃ¢â¬ . Adults should provide children with activities where they can use all their senses like touch, smell, taste, sound and sight, so providing them toys with flashing lights, soft toys and puppets which will show affection etc. Vygotskys theory is seen as a scaffolding process where the child imitates the practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, and is a one to one process centring the child individual needs first. Involving parents in these situations can be very difficult, so it is very important to build a relationship with trust and respect, this will help the parent to feel comfortable. Cheminais (2006, p. 101) quotes that Ã¢â¬Å"Clear communication and mutual respect help to promote positive productive working relationships between the two partnersÃ¢â¬ . In my nursery we have a folder for a child with autism and in that folder we have IEP sheets where we constantly observe and monitor the child. We also give some IEP sheets to the parent as well so they also monitor the child at home, this helps us to see how the child is doing at home and at nursery. We then have meetings with the parents, where we can discuss the childÃ¢â¬â¢s progress, this helps us to see the stage of development. Furthermore these sheets help us to plan and provide for the child further. Communication books can also help as the parent can read them, as this will have the childÃ¢â¬â¢s daily routine written in, so parents will feel reassured that their child is safe. (Johnston and William, 2009, p.399-402) Schools and settings can support children with autism by having SENCOÃ¢â¬â¢s (Special educational needs co-ordinator), so children who need extra support can have one to one attention from one main person. Meanwhile they can provide specialised resources like sensory based toys like flashing light toys. Also having family workers can help children, as they can support and guide parents, by having regular sessions where they can discuss where the child needs help and if necessary involve outside agencies. An inclusive environment for children with autism is essential for children to reach their full potential, as this will build their self esteem and confidence. The environment must be warm and friendly for children and parents, however having posters of children with SEN will help childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s parents see there are many types of SEN children. The room must be facilitated to meet childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs for example tables and chairs must be at the childÃ¢â¬â¢s level and layout of the room must be spacious for wheelchair users, so ramps and stair lifts must be provided. Activities must be adaptable for children with, so they can participate and learn from different experiences, just like all children. Children with autism must be given a range of resources/specialist equipment, therefore this will meet their needs so they are equally included. Resources like flash cards, textured materials, soft toys, flashing lights, also natural resources aswel like plants, must be provided as children with autism respond to sensing materials. In my nursery where I work, there is a child with autism, he likes to line objects horizontally and vertically and when playing he constantly repeats the same pattern. The child repeats the same pattern again and again, he shows some independence and confidence in this situation, and repeats his schema. Piaget was a theorist and his idea of schema was, Lindon (1998, p. 72) says Ã¢â¬Å"Patterns of behaviour that are linked through a theme and from which a child generalises and explores in different situationsÃ¢â¬ . There are many legal requirements that support the actions which need to be taken when a child may have special needs. The Disability Discrimination Act (1995) supports the actions which need to be taken, with children with SEN; this Act says that it would be illegal for settings not to make reasonable adjustments for people who have a disability. A perfect example of effective practice is Terry, J (2009, p.30) says Ã¢â¬Å"Autism is recognised as a disability under the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995 (DCSF, 2009), and some children and young people will have associated or additional complex developmental difficulties that require the high level of co-ordinated support delivered by Early SupportÃ¢â¬ . The Special Education Needs Disability Act (2001) also supports children with SEN. This Act is separated in two sections, part one develops the framework of SEN, to reinforce the rights of parents and their children to enter mainstream education and part two develops the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) to expand the rights of SEN children in schools. The main key points of these Acts are that children with disabilities are treated well, and that they are entitled to study the National Curriculum. In conclusion it is very important for schools and settings to provide a learning and friendly environment for children with autism. Therefore they must provide useful and quality resources and specialised equipment to meet childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s individual needs, so children can reach their utmost best, build their self esteem and confidence and also enjoy themselves. Schools and settings can also work with outside agencies and help to meet parents and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. As a result parents can get advice and support from other professionals and other agencies, on the other hand childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s certain needs can be tend to and learning experiences maximised. All staff must be trained to deal with children with autism so they can observe, plan and provide for children with certain needs which need to be met. So then children can develop their next stage of development, Furthermore parents working with teachers can help childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development enormously as their needs are most likely to be met. As parents are their primary carers, so they know their child/childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s likes, dislikes and interests. Staff can then plan and provide children with challenging activities which children will enjoy and develop further.