Sunday, May 24, 2020

4th Grade Science Experiments

Great 4th-grade science fair projects involve answering a question, solving a problem, or testing a hypothesis. Usually, a teacher or parent helps work out the hypothesis and design the project. Fourth graders have a good understanding of scientific concepts, but they may need help with the scientific method and organizing a poster or presentation. The key to developing a successful project is finding an idea that is interesting to a 4th grader. Experiment Ideas The best experiments usually begin with a question to which you dont know the answer. Once youve formulated a question, you can design a simple experiment to help figure out the answer: Do cockroaches have a preference for direction? Catch and release cockroaches. Which way do they go? Is there a common trend or not? You can try this project with ants or other crawling insects as well.Do colored ice cubes melt at the same rate as clear ice cubes? Add food coloring to an ice cube tray and compare how long the colored cubes take to melt compared to the regular ones.Does magnetism travel through all materials? Put different materials between a magnet and metal. Do they affect how strongly the magnet is attracted to the metal? If so, do they all affect the magnetic field to the same degree?Do all crayon colors last the same? Draw a really long line with one color, then draw the same length of line with another color. Are both crayons the same length?What is the effect of microwaving seeds on their germination rate? Test seeds that sprout quickly, like radish seeds, and different microwave times, such as 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 30 seconds, one minute. Use a control (no mi crowave) treatment for comparison.Will seeds germinate if you soak them in a liquid other than water? You can try milk, juice, vinegar, and other common household liquids. Alternatively, you could see if plants will grow if they are watered with liquids other than water.Make a simple homemade windmill. What is the best number of blades for the windmill?How much salt (or sugar) can a plant tolerate? Water plants with a different solution of salt or sugar. How high of a concentration can the plant tolerate? A related question would be to see if plants can survive if they are watered with soapy water such as leftover dishwater.Do birds have a preference for birdhouse material? In other words, do they seem to care if the birdhouse is made of wood or plastic or metal?Do worms react when they are exposed to light? Do they react differently when they are exposed to different colors of light?Do ants prefer different types of sugar? Test using table sugar, honey, maple syrup, and molasses.Ca n you taste the difference between foods that contain fat and fat-free versions of the same product?Compare the water filtration rate of different brands of coffee filters. Take one cup of liquid and time how long it takes to pass through the filter. Do the different filters affect the flavor of the coffee?Do white candles and colored candles burn at the same rate?Write messages using different types of invisible ink. Which was the most invisible? Which method produced a message that was easy to read after it was revealed?

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Same Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized Essay - 1289 Words

Could you imagine if you had met the ideal person you wished to share your entire life with but the law would not allow you to? That is the position that many homosexual Australians have been in since the settlement of this country. Same sex marriage is currently not allowed in Australia but I and a proven 60% of other Australians strongly believe it should be. Gay people pay taxes, serve in the military, participate in the workforce, are our neighbors, friends and family. Logic and decency would suggest that they should have the right to marry, just as any heterosexual couple can. However, there are people who disagree with this belief, take for example the government, namely Australia’s prime minister, Julia Gillard, several religious†¦show more content†¦I often wonder, before making her statement, did Julia Gillard not read section 116 of the Australian constitution? â€Å"The Commonwealth shall not make any law for establishing any religion, or for imposing any religious observance, or for prohibiting the free exercise of any religion†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Tradition once dictated that women could not own property or run for Parliament, let alone become Prime Minister. So why can’t Australia â€Å"move forward† with the times on this issue too, to give equality to all its citizens? The problem with Julia Gillard’s so called justification of not allowing gays to be wed is that the term ‘marriage’ in Australia is used in a legal sense and therefore loses any right to be counted as purely a religious ceremony. Marriage existed long before Christianity did. In fact, marriage, historically, was a European business agreement arranged by parents in order to protect bloodlines and inheritance rights. If Julia Gillard truly believes that marriage is a religious ceremony, then if we should ban anybody from getting married, it should be atheists like her. In the Catholic Christian bible, Leviticus 20:13 reads If a man lies with a man as one lies with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable. They must be put to death; their blood will be on their own heads.† The same book in the bible also states that it is a sin to get a haircut or shave your beard.Show MoreRelatedShould Same-Sex Marriages Be Legalized?. Same-Sex Marriages2063 Words   |  9 PagesShould Same-Sex Marriages Be Legalized? Same-sex marriages should be illegal because the increase of marriages with the same sex has aroused conflicts in society, affects on children, and religiously. Therefore one must halt the proposal. The history of homosexuality has a lot of stories to tell, however, the beginning of it all would begin shortly and oddly. On the Western contemporary concept of homosexuality would relatively currently be considered new during the day of time. Ideas of homosexualityRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized . The Same Sex Marriage1723 Words   |  7 Pages Same sex marriage should be legalized The same sex marriage has been widely debated in many countries for a long time. It is an important issue because it concerns basic moral and human rights. People all over the world come to the United States in search of freedom and equality. Being able to marry anyone, no matter the gender, is a freedom of right, but if that freedom of right is taken away from people than there is no equality. Homosexual peopleRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Not Be Legalized926 Words   |  4 Pageshave misunderstood the meaning of marriage. Marriage is not just a term to describe relationship that are precious to us, it’s more than just a union of heart and mind; it’s an institution between a man and a women. biblically, marriage is a life time union of a man and a women, primarily for the purpose of building a family and providing a stable environments for that family (1 Corinthian 7:2 16) According to Peter Sprigg, same sex marriage should not be legalized because of its immediate and long-termRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized1361 Words   |  6 PagesSame sex marriage has been the topic of an ongoing controversial debate in many countries for a long time now. This is an important issue because it concerns the basic principle of human rights and basic morality. Same sex marriage should be legalized; it is a violation of human rights, there are many misconceptions of same sex individuals, and allowing same sex marriage to be legalized would provide a boost to the economy. There are many misconceptions of homosexual people. A common myth is thatRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Not Be Legalized1562 Words   |  7 Pages~ Busse Same-Sex Debate Essay ~ Ever since the time when America studied family values and focused on healthy and important influences, marriage was considered to be between man and woman holding a physical and spiritual bond between each other, not between man and man and woman and woman. Some may see marriage as between two people of the same gender, or what is known as same-sex marriage. This form of marriage became popular in the U.S. during the 1960’s and 1970’s due to the urge of legalizationRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized898 Words   |  4 Pages2015 same sex marriage was legalized in all fifty states. Many arguments have come around about if homosexuality is genetic or if its chosen. Many people think either way and there aren’t many people who are in between thinking that homosexuality is chosen or not. The song â€Å"Same Love† by Macklemore was released in 2015 when all of the media slowed down about homosexuality and after same sex marriage was legalize d. So when Macklemore released this song more attention came to same sex marriage. ThisRead MoreShould Same Sex Marriage Be Legalized?1372 Words   |  6 PagesThe â€Å"date which will live in infamy† just had a child! As of June 26, 2015, same-sex marriage was legalized in all 50 states of America by the Supreme Court from a ruling that barely passed by a 5-4 vote. Wait a minute. Back up. Do you mean to tell me that boys can marry boys now? That girls can marry girls? That it’s legal?! Wake up America! Do you even realize what you have done? You have given gay people the right to marry. To marry! Who in their right mind would give gay people that cherishedRead MoreShould Same Sex Marriage Be Legalized?945 Words   |  4 PagesShould Same-Sex Marriage Be Legalized? Regardless of color, ethnicity, culture or religion, marriage has been and always have considered to be a man and a woman. This concern has been a debating and a hot topic currently in the United States p olitics, it is prohibited in a majority of the nation till the President have pass the law for same-sex marriage. With this question, I feel that same sex marriage should not be legalized, but it cannot be banned. I sense that a marriage is intensely betweenRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized972 Words   |  4 PagesSame sex couples have been waiting for same sex marriage to be legalized for many decades. According to Ken LaMance, â€Å"One of the first documented challenges to same-sex marriages occurred on May 18th, 1970, where two men applied for a marriage license in Heppenin County, Minnesota† (LaMance). Their request was denied because they felt marriage should be between a man and a woman. Civil Unions were the first step in legalizing same sex marriage. Civil Unions were introduced in 2000 in Vermont. CivilRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized910 Words   |  4 PagesSame-sex marriages also know, as gay/ Lesbian marriage is marriage between peop le of the same sex either as a secular civil ceremony or in a religious setting. In the late 20th century. Religious rites of marriage without legal recognition became increasingly common. In the 21st centuries various types of the same-sex unions have come to be legalized. As of 26 June 2015, eighteen countries; Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Price Makers and Price Takers - 952 Words

Market Structure o Perfect (pure) competition Price–taking firms each with no influence over the ruling market price (see diagram below) Free entry and exist of businesses in the long run – drives down profits towards a normal profit equilibrium level Each supplier produces homogeneous products – each a perfect substitute – hence the perfectly elastic demand curve for the individual supplier Key factor - interdependent nature of pricing decisions between rival firms Each firm must consider strategic behaviour of other â€Å"players† in the market Objective might be protecting market share or increasing market share Game theory can help to model different types of behaviour (both price and non- price competition) Kinked demand curve†¦show more content†¦When demand is strong and rising (e.g. during the upturn phase of the economic cycle), a business will have more â€Å"pricing power† than when demand is much weaker and falling (e.g. during a recession). Often a market may be affected by a demand-side â€Å"shock† which takes away the pricing power of suppliers. The airline industry in the wake of the terrorist attacks in 2001 could be considered as an example of this. Summary of the main factors affecting a firm’s pricing power Category Costs Competitors Influence on Pricing Policy In order to make a profit, a business should ensure that its products are priced above their average cost. In the short-term, it may be acceptable to price below AC if this price exceeds marginal cost – so that the sale still produces a positive contribution to fixed costs. If the business is a monopolist, then it has price-setting power. At the other extreme, if a firm operates under conditions of perfect competition, it has no choice and must accept the market price. The reality is usually somewhere in between. In such cases the chosen price needs to be considered relative to those of close competitors and with one eye to the likely reaction of rival firms when a business changes its pricing strategy.Show MoreRelatedWalmart, The Giant Utopia, By Sam Walton Essay981 Words   |  4 Pages Walmart, the giant utopia, the place where a lot of people usually do their shopping for the low prices and the variety of products was founded by Sam Walton. Walton was an entrepreneur a very different and innovative vision than with what was the norm at the time. He started his own company and made it into the leader in discount retailing that it is today. In fact, Walmart is considered to be the biggest company in the U.S. and it has stores worldwide. A lot of controversy orbits this huge companyRead MoreManagerial Economics Chapter 9 Essay1641 Words   |  7 Pagesmarkets, prices are determined by The interaction of market demand and supply because firms and consumers are price takers. Price taker Buyer or seller that is unable to affect the market price. A buyer or seller that takes the market price as given When are firms likely to be price takers? A firm is likely to be a price taker when†¦.. it sells a product that is exactly the same as every other firm. It represents a small fraction of the total market. Consumers are usually price takers when theyRead MoreThe Various Shades Of Monopolies And Perfect Competition1003 Words   |  5 Pagescontrol the prices for its goods or services, or in other words, they represent the market. They indeed have detrimental effects on consumer and social welfare, which is why most do not agree with them. This paper is an attempt to address the various points of monopolies in a society of competition. Keywords: Monopoly, Perfect Competition, Price maker, Barriers â€Æ' The Various Shades of Monopolies and Perfect Competition The perfectly competitive firm is considered the price taker, whereas theRead MorePerfect Competition1463 Words   |  6 Pagespower  to set the price of a homogeneous product. Because the conditions for perfect competition are strict, there are few if any perfectly competitive markets. Still, buyers and sellers in some  auction-type markets, say for  commodities  or some financial assets, may approximate the concept. Perfect competition serves as a benchmark against which to measure real-life and  imperfectly competitive  markets. Generally, a perfectly competitive market exists when every participant is a price taker, and no participantRead MorePure Monopoly in a Competitive World Essay996 Words   |  4 PagesIn the business world, the perfectly competitive firm is considered the price taker, whereas the monopolistic firm is the price maker, meaning they have control over the price. Pure monopoly does exist in today’s business world; we all have had the opportunity to have personal dealings with such companies. This assignment will discuss the various degrees of â€Å"monopolies† and attempt to provide accurate examples, allowing me to share my understanding of the competitive business market. In a competitiveRead MoreMarket Structures and Competitive Strategies1193 Words   |  5 PagesMarket Structures and Competitive Strategies ECO/365 Market Structures and Competitive Strategies Introduction There are many other soft drink makers but Coca Cola has been renowned to be one of the world’s top best soft drink makers and is among the best brands ever for a lot of years. It has the gain of a marketplace leader spot in drinks dealing with Pepsi in the subsequent spot. Coca cola functions in an oligopoly marketplace foundation where there are just scarcely any market playersRead More1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 COMPANY BACKGROUND The 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO ASSIGNMENT The 1.3 COMPANY600 Words   |  3 Pagescontrol of the price that it sets out in the market which makes the company the price maker. As a monopoly, it charges its customers based on what the company thinks are a reasonable price. Even though the government tends to ensure that prices are at a reasonable price, the company still makes the final decision as to how much to charge for the services it provide. This explains the reason why TM is said to be in control of the pricing system as competitors do not affect its decision on price. 3.3 COMPETITIONRead MoreLegal Laws Of The U. S. Drug Patent Laws864 Words   |  4 Pagestotally different types of competition. A flawlessly competitive market has several different representatives selling the exact same products. These representatives are considered to be price takers in reference to the competition. Price takers are firms that have no market power. They simply have to take the market price as given (Lumen, 2017). A monopoly starts when a single company sells a product that cannot be reproduced. Microsoft is a perfect example of a company that is seen as a monopoly dueRead MoreExplicit Costs and Implicit Costs Concepts1545 Words   |  7 Pagesequilibrium price of the market or the total quantity supplied in the market. Thus, a firm operating in a competitive market has no incentive to supply at a price lower than market equilibrium price, as it can sell all it wants to supply at equilibrium. At the same time, the firm cannot sell at price higher than the mar ket price, because it will not be able to find buyers at that price. Because of the limited scope of economies of scale available to the firm, it is called a price taker. If a firmRead MoreExplicit Costs And Implicit Costs Concepts1564 Words   |  7 Pagesequilibrium price of the market or the total quantity supplied in the market. Thus, a firm operating in a competitive market has no incentive to supply at a price lower than market equilibrium price, as it can sell all it wants to supply at equilibrium. At the same time, the firm cannot sell at price higher than the market price, because it will not be able to find buyers at that price. Because of the limited scope of economies of scale available to the firm, it is called a price taker. If a firm

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about William Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet - 969 Words

William Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet written by William Shakespeare, tells the story of too unfortunate lovers caught up in their family’s hatred which in the end leads to the tragic deaths of both lovers. Classical Greek tragedy influenced Renaissance writers greatly Shakespeare was no exception. According to the dictionary, fate is ‘the supposed force, principle, or power that predetermines event.’ Which means that it is out of our hands. I believe Shakespeare wanted his audience to believe that fate was to blame rather than the actions of the characters. In â€Å"Romeo and Juliet† there are many references to the stars and fate; this makes it clear that the play is a classical†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬ËœYour lives shall pay the forfeit of the peace.’ This is the first insight of fate stepping in. Romeo wasn’t involved in the fight, as he was very much in to himself at this point feeling sorry for himself and lusting after the love of Rosaline. ‘Bid a sick man in sadness make his will- a word ill urg’d to one that is so ill: in sadness, cousin, I do love a woman.’ This show’s that Romeo falls in love very easily and is one of his floors and pretension downfalls. The way in which Romeo and Juliet met has a link to fate, in act one scene two a serving man asks Romeo and Benvolio to read the invitation for the Capulet’s party as he cant read and he invites them along. ‘My master the is the great rich Capulet, and if you be not of the house of Montagues, I pray you come and crush a cup- of wine.’ Benvolio Mercutio and Romeo decide they will go to the party Romeo is unsure about the party as he had a dream. ‘I fear to early for my mind misgives some consequence yet hanging in the stars shall bitterly begin his fearful date with this night revels, and expire the term of a depised life clos’d in my breast. ‘By some vile forfeit of untimely death.’ Before Romeo goes he foreshadows the event and in his heart and mind he knows that something will go wrong, although he feels uneasy about the situation he goes and know that his love Rosaline will be there. Romeo hasShow MoreRelatedRomeo and Juliet by Wil liam Shakespeare619 Words   |  3 PagesRomeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare is a play written in the 16th century that’s about a tragic love story between two teenagers who come from rival families, yet fate brings them together and despite the grudge that each family holds for the other; they fall in love. Throughout the story they hide their love from other people especially their families and marry and when Romeo is banished for murder they conceive a plan to run off together. From this story, we learn how two teenagers deceiveRead MoreRomeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare818 Words   |  3 PagesThroughout history, Shakespeare has been given credit for the popularizing of tragedies, causing a tragic hero to be seen as a reputable character. In Shakespeare’s story â€Å"Romeo and Juliet,† two ill-fated lovers are caught between the bitter hatred of their two families. Knowing their parents would never approve, Romeo and Juliet struggle to keep their love a secret. Though the story ends in what most people would view as a tragedy, Romeo fails to meet the characteristics of a tragic hero establishedRead MoreRomeo And Juliet by William Shakespeare967 Words   |  4 PagesRomeo And Juliet by William Shakespeare In Romeo and Juliet the beauty and ardour of young love is seen by Shakespeare as the irradiating glory of sunlight and starlight in a dark work. Discuss the techniques that Shakespeare would have used to capture this dominating image of light. In the time of Shakespeare, his plays would have been performed during the day, using natural light from the open centre of the theatre. Since there could be no dramatic lighting andRead MoreRomeo and Juliet, by William Shakespeare532 Words   |  2 Pages In William Shakespeare’s, classic play, Romeo and Juliet, a young girl, Juliet, has fallen in love with a boy from a feuding family, Romeo. Friar Laurence, the priest, has married them against the rules. Juliet’s cousin, Tybalt starts a fight with Romeo and Romeo kills Tybalt. Romeo, in hysteria and distress goes searching for Friar Laurence’s advice, since the Friar is the only one who knows about the marriage besides the Nurse, Romeo and Juliet. In Scene 3 of Act 3, Friar Laurence’s speech revealsRead MoreRomeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare893 Words   |  4 Pagesare. In the play Romeo and Juliet, by William Shakespeare, the playwright used the Nurse, Lord Capulet, and Friar Lawrence to show how taming the wills of the teens and forcing their wishes upon them could turn the play Romeo and Juliet into a tragic love story. The Nurse is one of the adults who is to blame for the tragic end of Romeo and Juliet.The Nurse is like Juliet’s mother and has a lot of trust towards the Nurse, but this changed when Juliet met Romeo. When Romeo and Juliet decided to getRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1197 Words   |  5 Pagesforbidding it’s deadly, referring of course to the classic William Shakespeare play of â€Å"Romeo and Juliet†, set in Verona, Italy. The play examines two families, the Montauges and the Capulets caught in an ongoing battle of hate, however two of the children manage to find love. All is not fair in love and war, and this play examines some examples of how love and hate correlate to each other in this captivating tale of â€Å"Romeo and Juliet†. It’s a feud so deep and long lasting it seems that nothingRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1287 Words   |  6 PagesLizzy Baginski English Composition 2 Mr. Spera March 10, 2015 Romeo and Juliet Research Paper The movie Romeo and Juliet is a modern classic film that took place in 1996. Overall this is a timeless story that everyone should go and watch. This movie has an intriguing plot line that tells the story of two feuding families, The Montagues and The Capulets, and how the children of these two different families fall in love. The two children overcome various obstacles such as hiding their chemistry fromRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet967 Words   |  4 Pagesof ‘Romeo and Juliet’ written by William Shakespeare. Shakespearean time was between the middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution and it was branded by religious changes. William Shakespeare is widely known as the greatest dramatist of all time. Born April 1564, Shakespeare’s play ‘Romeo and Juliet’ is no doubt one of his most famous pieces. ‘Romeo and Juliet’ was first published in 1597 and its tragic story of banned love still captures the creativity of its audien ce today. ‘Romeo and Juliet’, althoughRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet925 Words   |  4 Pagesmade by Romeo. This happens right after Romeo gets to Juliet’s grave, then meets Paris, fights Paris, and kills Paris.[a]Right before Paris dies, he says â€Å"Oh, I am slain! If thou be merciful, Open the tomb. Lay me with Juliet† (Shakespeare 5.3.72-73). Paris is brave and proud enough to tell Romeo, the person that kills him, to put him in the grave next to Juliet, who he was going to marry. Romeo’s true love for Juliet caused all of this in the first place. In the play, The Tragedy of Romeo and JulietRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet 966 Words   |  4 Pages Beauty Over Gold â€Å"Beauty provoketh thieves sooner than gold.--William Shakespeare, 1623. In his book As You Like It, William Shakespeare pointed out the supremacy of love rather than the want of gold and wealth. Truly, beauty is more important to thieves than wealth. Many of the thieves in this world would rather have an elegant woman than to obtain precious rubies. After all, what good is a prosperous man if he doesn’t have a charming woman? Two famous men grab my attention who didn’t fear for

Modern Day Slavery in the United States An Invisible Shadow Free Essays

When thinking of modern day slavery, it is impossible for the average person to comprehend that it is still going on within our own country today.   The issues of slavery and inequality have been a major part of the history of the United States, and the fact that they are still hidden behind walls of ignorance and fear are more than can be grasped by the human mind.   Modern day slavery   â€Å"exists not because today’s workers are immigrants or because some of them don’t have papers but because agriculture has always managed to sidestep the labor rules that are imposed upon other industries† (Bale, 1984, pg. We will write a custom essay sample on Modern Day Slavery in the United States: An Invisible Shadow or any similar topic only for you Order Now 5). It has always seemed as if morality was what our country had originally fought for when struggling with the issues of slavery, but the very fact our government and local politics have refused to accept the existence of migrant slavery in our country, due to the web of financial greed by layers of major industries, proves to be a major source of discrimination against the migrant workers who have entered our country to elevate their standards of poverty life. Over the years, many of our activists have approached the morality issues of slavery in the United States with the image of slavery coming to mind of trade ships bringing African slaves to our country, forcing them into slave labor against their will. What does not come to mind, which is why so many people find it hard to acknowledge slavery today, are images of Immokalee migrants living in housing owned by â€Å"the town’s largest landlord, a family named Blocker, owns several hundred old shacks and mobile homes, many rusting and mildew-stained, which can rent for upward of two hundred dollars a week, a square-footage rate approaching Manhattan† (Bale, 1984, pg. 2). Another image of slavery is of the migrant’s payday after working eight to twelve hours a day, six or seven days a week, â€Å"After charging workers a check-cashing fee, the brothers (the bosses) then garnished for rent, food, work equipment, the ride from Arizona (where they were picked up), and daily transportation to and from the fields. Whatever remained was usually spent on food at La Guadalupana† (Bale, 1984, pg.3). After this, the workers barely broke even. In addition, no utilities were provided in the rent for migrants, so this was also deducted. The labor contractors â€Å"exert near-absolute control over their workers’ lives; besides handling the payroll and deducting taxes, they are frequently the sole source of the workers’ food and housing, which in addition to the ride to and from the fields, they provide for a fee†. (Bale, 1984, pg. 2). Females themselves had their own brand of slavery which included rape and forced prostitution, â€Å"In 1998, Rogerio Cadena and fifteen others, including several relatives, were charged with smuggling twenty women and girls, some as young as fourteen, into the United States from Mexico with promises of jobs in housekeeping, landscaping, and child care. The women were made to pay a smuggling fee of more than two thousand dollars each and held in sexual slavery in trailer-home brothels in South Florida and the Carolinas†. (Bale, 1984, pg. 5) These women â€Å"were required to perform between fifteen and twenty-five sexual acts per day†, and â€Å"victims who became pregnant were forced to have abortions and then return to work within weeks; the cost of the abortion was added to their debt†. (Bale, 1984, pg. 5-6) The problem with all of this was that a migrant agriculture worker was â€Å"paid only 40 cents a bucket, which weighs thirty-two pounds† (Bale, 1984, pg. 2) which hardly made any of it worth it, if they had only known in advance. To calculate wages, a worker would have to pick 125 buckets a day to make a daily wage of $50. For the average citizen of the United States this would seem desolate wages, but for the Haitians, poor whites, Mexicans, and African-American migrant workers it was a fortune, as quoted by one migrant worker, â€Å"Farmwork in Mexico pays about five or six dollars a day – – when it’s available† (Bale, 1984, pd. 3). What they were not told is that once they arrived in the rich country of the United States, they would barely make a dime due to the high prices their bosses would charge them for living expenses â€Å"that were never discussed†. (Bale, 1984, pg. 3). Forced unknowingly into a slave life, the conditions of these migrant workers are the same as slaves earlier in our history. Similar to the African slaves, they are sold to owners or bosses, â€Å"the workers saw Nino write out a check to El Chaparro. They were told that the bosses had paid a thousand dollars for each of them† (Bale, 1984, pg. 3). They receive little, if any wages, as previously stated. And they become at the complete mercy of these abusive individuals, where â€Å"workers were forced to work six days a week, netting at most fifteen dollars a day. According to one Flores victim, female camp residents were raped, and gunfire was often used by guards to keep order†. (Bales, 1984, pg. 5). The sense of community of these migrant workers was nonexistent due to the language barrier of individual races, different cultures, and fear of reprisal from their bosses — of   â€Å"owners† who used threats of violence against them if they did not do as they were told. If it had been there, communication would have allowed them to seek help, which some actually did out of sheer desperation with many of the dying. Knowing these facts, it is almost difficult, if not impossible, to purchase products from companies such as Taco Bell, Tropicana, Coca-Cola, McDonalds, Wendy’s, and many others – – recognizing that their profit and products arrive through such â€Å"sweatshop like situations† (Bale, 1984, pg. 4) in our country. Many people have boycotted these products, such as Taco Bell, but only 1,000 workers have been rescued out of half-a-million migrant workers living in the United States in the year 2003. Appearing futile, the term â€Å"moral beauty† seems a laughable situation as we look back in retrospect. What is beautiful and moral about struggling migrant workers who are exhausted, hungry, and worried to death about the financial status of their families they have left in their home countries – – with no way out? But more than that, what is beautiful and moral about a country, whose stepping-stones of democracy were equality and anti-slavery, yet who now refuses to acknowledge such situations? Facts prove that migrant slavery exists in our country today, with people dying who were attempting to better themselves. What would have happened if we had welcomed by the same type of individuals when we first came to our new country, to â€Å"better our lives†? Would we have been more understanding and more apt to help the migrant workers in their plight? Or would we still look the other way until the slavery was so blatant we were forced to do something about it â€Å"so we would look good to those watching†. References Bales (1984). â€Å"Nobodies: Annals of Labor†, The New Yorker. The Conde Naste Publications, Inc. How to cite Modern Day Slavery in the United States: An Invisible Shadow, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

How does Oswald use the notion of contrast to create poetic effects on the reader Essay Example For Students

How does Oswald use the notion of contrast to create poetic effects on the reader ? Essay In her poem Dart, Alice Oswald creates, among other poetic techniques, contrast. She employs this in the whole poem but also within it and its different parts. She uses the notion of contrast through three main couples of themes: life and death, nature and human nature, and the pragmatic and the poetic. The first main couple of themes, life and death, gives a sense of reality in the poem, but athe same time can be related to unreality. This is because of the aspects of pragmatism and poetry. Dart starts by giving an identity concept: a walker is physically and psychologically discovering himself. The expression â€Å"moving alive† shows a detailed exploration of life; it show us the unusual logic of the poet: in this case unmoving but alive and moving but dead. The poet wrote this to emphasize the visual aspect of the man, what she sees when looking at him. In fact, the voice of the poem itself stands for identity: â€Å"summoning itself by speaking†. We notice, in parallel, the contrast between life and death through several words: â€Å"alive† and â€Å"bones† for example. The notion of time -in link with life and death- is as well important, and in a number of different ways; firstly we can see a contrast between the youth of the river and the old age of the man, and this can be related to the metaphorical word couple â€Å"morning† and â€Å"evening†. Secondly there is a notion of personal time, which is the walkers sense of time: â€Å"an hour in the morning is worth three in the evening†. We can literally understand through this quotation that there is a preference for mornings and this can be linked to tiredness as the man is qualified as â€Å"old†. Thirdly, the poet mentions an idea of eternity, and this suggesting cycles of life from generation to generation; it is life issuing from nature, from earth. Concerning the water, the river, we notice many sides if it which are expressed through positive aspects: reality and dream, as well as pragmatism and poetry; but also through a negative aspect: it is that a river is calm at the source of it but it can become dangerous later on and kill, hence the notion of death importantly present in the poem. There is a complicity, a union, a relationship between men and nature. And this is what Alice Oswald is trying to show us. The only contrast is that nature is benign, condescending (even if the water is shown, at times, to be dangerous, almost hungry for a life), while men sometimes use the water and the nature for his personal needs, not caring for the natures personal comfort; men own, control, and even pollute rivers and nature. For short, men disturb the peace of nature. So we have here two sets of voices: one poetic, where the man respects the nature, and one pragmatic, where the man disturbs the nature. The second main couple of themes, nature and human nature, is as well very effective in creating contrast in the poem. This is because both of these themes have several meanings and each of these definitions affect different parts of the poem. One of the meanings of nature is that it is a wild primitive state of existence, untouched and uninfluenced by man, civilization and artificiality. This especially concerns the forester and the woodnymph passage: the foresters tells let us know what he observes and sees, while the nymph explains what she feels. Shes the persona who represents nature and wild living; we see this through her lines which are more poetic, rhymed, visually well written and structured than the foresters lines. This definition as well concerns the stonewaller extract because we see here that Oswald gives importance to stones and that she knows them well -as it is a pure and natural object-: â€Å"I can read them†, â€Å"but its not just stones†. This efficiently shows that she respects nature and that she wont let it be touched or influenced by man and civilization. And finally, the swimmer passage is also concerned because we notice a real link, relation built up between the swimmer and the w ater: â€Å"I steered through rapids like a canoe† suggests that hes in control and guiding the water, but right after, â€Å"digging my hands in† shows how powerful the water might be and how fast the stream is, and â€Å"what am I, spelling the shapes of the letters with legs and arms† makes us feel like the body is becoming an onomatopoeia and part of the water, and this suggests a lack of control, unlike the first quotation. And again, this extract shows us how the river is preserved as well as nature, and that they have kept their wild and natural side. .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac , .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .postImageUrl , .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac , .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:hover , .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:visited , .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:active { border:0!important; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:active , .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Literary Techniques Poetry Analysis EssayAnother signification of nature is that it represents the fundamental qualities of a person or a thing. Identity and the presence of an essential character are implicated here; and this is why the walker extract has to be noticed. It is the very first passage of the poem and the walker is the first character evoked: â€Å"Whos this moving along the moor? An old man seeking and finding difficulty†. So we can say that, in a way, he opens the poem. Moreover, the author describes him: â€Å"An old man, fifty years a mountaineer†, â€Å" listen to the horrible keep-time of a man walking, rustling and jingling his keys at t he centre of his own noise†. So the notion of identity is clearly present here, as well as in the naturalist part. Indeed, we know what hes interested in, that he admires nature which makes this passage rather poetic than pragmatic. In parallel, the sound patterns such as â€Å"she loves songs, she belongs to the soundmarks of larks† express her relationship with nature and its beauty. We also notice some identity in the poacher and the fisherman and the bailiff passages; the poacher show us a particular attitude to the river. He seems possessive, uncaring and resentful of others. We notice as well the structure of this passage with short phrases to convey excitement: â€Å"On a S-bend. Not a sound.† Moreover, the use of informal language gives a colourful sense of character and identity: â€Å"pissed†, â€Å"tosser†, â€Å"leg it downriver†. In the fisherman and the bailiff extract we can see there is more a lack of confidence: â€Å"I fish like hell†. So he tries to find reassurance and contact with himself; he isolates himself in a natural world for this. But at the beginning we notice a confusion and a lack of individual identity; we move from one private and lonely voice (the fishermans voice), to a public role, in the bailiffs. This extract is about nature and fishing. After an identity meaning of nature, another signification is that it is the whole system of the existence, arrangement, forces and events of all physical life that are not controlled by man. This definition applies to the naturalist, the fisherman and the bailiff, the dreamer and the sealwatcher passages. The naturalist because all the natural aspects she observes and admires are totally independent from her and from man in general. The fisherman and the bailiff because, as for the naturalist, the event of the massive quantity of salmon coming up is entirely natural and independent from man. For the dreamer, the fact is that it is a complete imaginative exploration. He actually looses control of his weight: â€Å"not quite in full possession of his weight†, exactly like in water. And this is as well a kind of force of physical life that we cant control. Finally, the sealwatcher is also concerned because he talks about animal reproduction: â€Å"there the musky fishy genital smell of things not yet actual†, which is something in link with nature as well. The main definition of human nature also affects some of the extracts. Human nature can be defined as the unique elements that form a basic part of human life and distinguishes it from other animal life. We recognize this signification particularly through the naturalist and the swimmer parts: because in the swimmer passage we notice a reference to an animal: â€Å"we change ourselves into the fish dimension†. The word â€Å"into† particularly emphasizes the transformation implicated. And the naturalist extract is the one where we find the more animal enunciations: â€Å"frogs†, â€Å"Butterflies†, â€Å"heron†, â€Å"eel†, â€Å"otter†. In fact we notice that he pays no attention to capitals at the start of the sentences but that he does care capitalising animals; the importance given to nature and animals is then clearly shown and proved here. .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 , .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .postImageUrl , .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 , .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:hover , .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:visited , .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:active { border:0!important; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:active , .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Song and The Darkling Thrush EssaySo Alice Oswald does talk about nature at first, and then builds up human nature theme with and through it. By the way, her poem ends up with the part of the sealwatcher; the verb to seal also means to close up securely. So we can say that, at the end, the author seals her poem. Alice Oswald uses the notion of contrast through the whole poem and especially within three main couples of themes (life and death, nature and human nature, and pragmatism and poetry) and these essentially help feeding the poem with emotion and to communicate these feelings to the reader.

Leadership in Early Childhood Education

Question: Discuss about the Leadership in Early Childhood Education. Answer: Early Childhood Education is an integral field in the society as it focuses on empowering children and reducing poverty as well as educating children. The field for a long time has been run and managed by women who are considered better child nurses than men. Leadership in this field is very significant since it entails women leadership. The success of any given organization is usually attributed to good leadership. ECEC is a recognised field in Australia, embedded in the national as well as the state curriculum. The program is funded by the government through the ministry of education (Selznick, 2011). The personnel in the ECEC sector are based at the centre level and therefore their leadership is mainly based at the ECEC centres. Since their services are based at the ECEC centre level, leadership by the ECEC personnel is focussed on the leadership values executed when dealing with the ECEC children, parents to the children, the community under which they serve as well as their interactions with the governments (Aaker Joachimsthaler, 2012 . Having to deal with people from diverse backgrounds, it is essential for the ECEC personnel to possess special leadership skills to enable them handle the duties they are tasked with. Due to the nature of their job as well as the people they handle, ECEC personnel ought to be caring persons. Busch and Woodrow viewed the ancient character of the ECEC personnel as that which demands one to be a caring woman who is capable to deliver good service to the nation demonstrated by their quality labour as well as ready to sacrifice self for the communit y (Carroll, et al. 2008). Just like the leadership of any organization, good leadership in Early Childhood Development plays a role in ensuring that learning is effective in the Australian ECEC centres. The leadership a part from representing the image of the ECEC centres plays crucial roles that ensures that the centres are on their feet running (Northouse, 2012). The leaders plan, control, direct, lead, motivate, coordinate as well as recruit for the ECEC centres. Therefore leadership in ECEC is both a technical model, a behaviour, a matter of style as well as a philosophy. A leadership model comprises theories and ideas used in an attempt to providing effective leadership. Leadership in ECEC is a complicated phenomenon since it entails dealing with young children who are very delicate as well as dealing with parents and the community. To lead in this field, one requires not only to possess the qualities of an ordinary leader but to have exceptional leadership skills. The job entails dealing with children who may not be able to communicate, some who are violent, others with various medical conditions among other issues. Australian ECEC leadership is mostly based on team leadership where the personnel work as a unit to realize their goals. Moreover, the profession due to its nature calls for and encourages servant leadership where the personnel have to go an extra mile to ensure the safety and well-being of the young and delicate children. According to these theories, leaders are individuals born with exceptional leadership qualities and born with a destiny to lead. The leaders needed not to be trained on leadership skills since according to these theories, leaders are born and not made. Such leaders would simply excel in their leadership positions due to their personality (Avolio, et al. 2009). To support this theory, Shaw (1976) and Fraser (1978) conducted a research after which they came to the conclusion that leaders would score higher marks in innate traits such as intelligence, sociability, popularity and verbal ability. Nonetheless, Woodraw, Busch and HARD argue against the use of this theory in the ECEC since it is masculine and underplays the role of women leadership. Behavioural Ideals of leadership This theory looked at the effectiveness of a leader by observing the behaviours of the leader that were considered to be most effective. According to this theory, if a leader wants to be successful in his/her leadership, he/she must select one ideal style of behaviour that will see him/her perform the leadership duties effectively (Nahavandi, 2016). In 1964, Jane Mouton and Robert Blake came up with a Managerial Grid model to highlight the behavioural styles to be implemented in order for a leader to provide effective leadership. According to them as presented in the Management Grid, effective leadership should depict concern for people as well as a concern for production. An effective leader should have the interests of the people he/she is leading at heart and ensure that at all times the people feel motivated to perform the given tasks efficiently and to achieve a common goal (Gibson McDaniel, 2010). The personnel in the Australian ECEC put the interest of the children first. The leadership ensures that the safety of the child is taken care of before anything else. The ECEC leadership view children as their own and would to greater lengths to protect the child even from their parents whenever cases of any abuse arise. This theory is premised on the idea that the actions of a leader ought to change from time to time in accordance with the circumstances the leader is facing at the time of providing the leadership. This theory allows for and encourages flexibility of leaders to fit in with the changing trends in the leadership styles (Savage Honeycutt, 2011). The leader should adopt new and better leadership methods according to the situation at hand to ensure that they are able to address the problem presented amicably. Leadership in ECEC in Australia has adopted this model. The leadership is free and flexible and changes whenever need be for the sake of the children. For instance, the leadership will easily change the teaching methods whenever it is realized that the method being used is not friendly to a specific child. This leadership model puts great emphasis on the roles the leader has to perform. As opposed to coming up ideal ways of behaving at the organizing or trying to match the circumstances, functional theories of leadership puts emphasis on the crucial areas that needs the leaders urgent action in order for the leader to be considered effective in their leadership (Olson, 2008). The leadership of ECEC encourages performance of individual teachers. Through testing of the skills acquired by the children, the leadership is able to establish whether the techniques used by the individual teachers are effective or not. Integrated Psychological theories of leadership In this model of leadership, the leader employs the use of the ideals of the other four models of leadership while at the same time addresses the inner psychology of the leader. ECEC leadership observes the performance of the child as a result of the techniques used by the specific teachers; how the teacher handles the children as well as how flexible the teacher is when dealing with children of varied capabilities (Trompenaars Voerman, 2009). This technique ensures that the interests of the child come first. Leadership Styles in Early Childhood Education Country Club Style- Using this leadership style, the leadership in the Australian ECEC is concerned with the welfare of the children than just teaching the curriculum. The ECEC leader freely mingles with his juniors and creates a cordial relationship that makes the juniors happy. (Miner, 2015). The leader is more concerned with making the children happy while in school and feeling at home while in the school. Team Style-This style puts emphasis on the task equally as the emphasis put on the employees. Employees are encouraged to own the task and motivated to perform the task without feeling coerced. This is the best leadership style since it adopts a collaborative approach and encourages consultation. The leadership in the Australian ECEC puts emphasis in the welfare of the children as well as are concerned in teaching the curriculum as set by the national/state government to the children. Participative/democratic Style- The leadership in the Australian ECEC encourages and allows the participation of children in deciding the topics they want to learn, the places they wish to tour as well as the teachers they want to teach them. Through this style, the ECEC children acquire the necessary confidence to face the world. Delegative/Laissez-Fair Style- The leadership in the Australian ECEC program encourages children leadership. They do this by allowing the young children to participate in the running of some of the programmes as well as decisions of the ECEC centres. This starts right from class level where children are allowed to present before their colleagues acting as the teacher. This builds their confidence and enhances their leadership as well as presentation skills. At group level, children are allowed to set the rules of engagement when doing class duties. Leadership philosophies used in the Australian ECEC Leadership philosophy refers to the way leaders think and behave while in leadership. Through analysing the leadership philosophies, one is able to identify and explain essential aspects of leadership such as belifes, values, morality, ethics, society, civilization, relationships, politics among others (Hoel, et al. 2010). They include; Australian ECEC leadership encourages servant leadership where leaders put the interests of the children first. This philosophy eliminates materialistic vices such as corruption in leadership of the ECEC centres. A servant leader is not motivated by material gain in serving his subjects but rather by the passion for the job and love for the people. Good leadership calls for the leaders to be themselves and not to pretend to be who they are not. Australian ECEC leadership encourages authentic leadership and teaches the same to the children to make them authentic leaders of tomorrow. ECEC leaders are expected and encouraged to engage in morally upright behaviour and always know that the society looks up to them as role models. ECEC leaders should conduct themselves in a manner that replicates the values expected of them. They should avoid by all costs engaging in acts that will put the position they hold to question (Clarke, 2013). In conclusion, leadership is a position of great significance in the society. Leaders are viewed as role models to members of society. For this reason, leaders of ECEC centres should at all times conduct themselves in a manner that will protect the image of the position and promote good values to the society (Limsila Ogunlana, 2008). They should shun away from negative vices and use their position to be a blessing to the society and not to manipulate the society. References Aaker, D. A., Joachimsthaler, E. (2012). Brand leadership. Simon and Schuster. Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual review of psychology, 60, 421-449. Carroll, B., Levy, L., Richmond, D. (2008). Leadership as practice: Challenging the competency paradigm. Leadership, 4(4), 363-379. Clarke, S. (2013). Safety leadership: A meta?analytic review of transformational and transactional leadership styles as antecedents of safety behaviours. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(1), 22-49. Derue, D. S., Nahrgang, J. D., Wellman, N. E. D., Humphrey, S. E. (2011). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: An integration and meta?analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel psychology, 64(1), 7-52. Gibson, C. B., McDaniel, D. M. (2010). Moving beyond conventional wisdom: Advancements in cross-cultural theories of leadership, conflict, and teams. Perspectives on Psychological science, 5(4), 450-462. Hoel, H., Glas, L., Hetland, J., Cooper, C. L., Einarsen, S. (2010). Leadership styles as predictors of self?reported and observed workplace bullying. British Journal of Management, 21(2), 453-468. Miner, J. B. (2015). Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge. Nahavandi, A. (2016). The Art and Science of Leadership -Global Edition. Pearson. Ncube, L. B. (2010). Ubuntu: A transformative leadership philosophy. Journal of Leadership Studies, 4(3), 77-82. Northouse, P. G. (2012). Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage. Olson, K. (2008, October). The Relationship Between Stewardship Theory of Management and Employee Engagement: A Case Study of Exploration of Leadership Philosophy of a Professional Services Firm. In Midwest Academy of Management Annual Conference. Savage-Austin, A. R., Honeycutt, A. (2011). Servant leadership: A phenomenological study of practices, experiences, organizational effectiveness, and barriers. Journal of Business Economics Research (JBER), 9(1). Selznick, P. (2011). Leadership in administration: A sociological interpretation. Quid Pro Books. Trompenaars, F., Voerman, E. (2009). Servant Leadership Across Cultures: Harnessing the Strength of the World's Most Powerful Leadership Philosophy. Infinite Ideas. Limsila, K., Ogunlana, S. O. (2008). Performance and leadership outcome correlates of leadership styles and subordinate commitment. Engineering, construction and architectural management, 15(2), 164-184.