Monday, September 30, 2019
IntroductionIn order to describe the evolution of leadership theory we must first define what we understand leadership to mean. An early or traditional definition of leadership may be, an interpersonal influence directed towards the achievement of a set goal or series of goals (Northhouse, 2004, p 2). In accordance with the evolution of leadership theory the definition of leadership by a modern frame of reference may be, a relationship dynamic in nature based on mutual influence between leaders and collaborators in which both reach higher levels of motivation and moral development as they strive to affect change (Freiberg and Freiberg, 1996, p 298). This essay will describe the evolution of leadership theory as it developed from being based on individual personal traits and behaviors to the modern theories that are based on dynamic models of situation and on transformation.Early Leadership theories: traits and behaviorsOhio State University developed a theory of leadership from a ser ies of studies that obtained data from questionnaires filled in by subordinates and another questionnaire filled in by managers that described the leadership traits and behaviors of their leaders (Fleishman, 1953, p 2). Two leadership styles were identified and hypothesized to be able to describe all leaders (Fleishman, 1953, p 2). The first leadership style was termed Ã¢â¬Å"initiating structureÃ¢â¬ (Fleishman, 1953, p 3. This leadership style described the leader who directs with transactional and task oriented style. This style of leadership has been described as great for routine and repetitive task, however on the negative side it has also been used to describe the micro-manager (Fleishman, 1953, p 4).Examples of how this leadership style may present in the workplace include the leader who lets work-unit members know what is expected of them; who schedules the work to be done; encourages the use of uniform work procedures; assigns work-unit members to particular tasks; plans tasks for work-unit members; makes his or her attitudes clear to the work unit; clarifies work roles and asks for results (Fleishman, 1953, p 4).The second leadership style identified by the Ohio State theory of leadership was termed Ã¢â¬Å"considerationÃ¢â¬ (Fleishman, 1953, p 5).Ã This leadership style described the leader who is people-oriented and participative, and transformational (Fleishman, 1953, p 5). Examples of how this leadership style may present in the workplace includes, the leader who treats all work-unit members as his or her equal; is friendly and approachable; does little things to make work pleasant; puts suggestions made by the work unit into operation; looks out for personal welfare of work unit members; encourages a supportive socio-emotional work atmosphere; maintains high morale in the work-unit and promotes a collaborative work atmosphere (Fleishman, 1953, p 5).Around the same time period The University of Michigan conducted similar studies to the Oh io State work (Katz, et al, 1950, p 23) based on questionnaire responses by leader's subordinates and also developed a two-leadership style theory (Katz, et al, 1950, p 43). The first leadership style was termed Ã¢â¬Å"production centeredÃ¢â¬ (Katz, et al, 1950, p 44). Examples of how this leadership style may present in the workplace includes, the leader who places an emphasis on the technical or task aspects of the job; is concerned mainly with accomplishing group's goal and who regards group members as means to an end (Katz, et al, 1950, p 44).The second leadership style offered by the Michigan State University theory was termed Ã¢â¬Å"employee centeredÃ¢â¬ (Katz, et al, 1950, p 46). Examples of how this leadership style may present itself in the workplace includes, the leader who places an emphasize interpersonal relations; who takes a personal interest in the needs of employees and who accepts individual differences among members of his / her team (Katz, et al, 1950, p 44 ). These earlier studies of leadership theories drew conclusions from research data that only looked at the single dimension of leadership being the observation of the leader's traits and behaviors. Although these studies provided valuable insight into which leadership traits and behaviors may have been associated with higher levels of productivity, the theories lack the depth of understanding that a dynamic model would bring which accounts for the interaction of the leader's subordinates and the workplace situation.Modern Leadership Theories: dynamic models of situational and transformational leadershipThe leadership theory termed situational theory is based on the amount of direction and socio-emotional support a leader should provide to a specific situation (Blanchard et al, 1999, p 59). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This theory developed by Hersey and Blanchard, recognizes four different leadership styles that are telling, selling, participating and delegating (Blanchard et al, 1999 p 60 ). The leader determines which style to use depending upon the specific task that is to be accomplished and the maturity level of the followers.The maturity of the followers was a termed coined to explain the willingness of the followers to take responsibility for directing their own behavior (Blanchard et al, 1999, 60). A combination of a demanding task with a low maturity level would require the leadership style of telling (Blanchard et al, 1999, p 60). The leadership style of selling would also suit a situation with a demanding task and low level of follower maturity while the leader is still responsible for the goal being achieved the followers are encouraged to participate (Blanchard et al, 1999, p 61). The leadership style of participating suits situations of a less demanding task and low-level maturity of the followers (Blanchard et al, 1999, p 61). Finally the leadership style of delegating is matched to a high level of follower maturity and therefore is suited to all levels of demand in terms of task (Blanchard et al, 1999, p 61).The transformational leadership theory recognizes the changing demands that an organization may face, like the situational leadership theory however it places its greatest emphasis on leadership behavior and traits (Northhouse, 2004, p 173). While this may seem like a return to the earlier more limited theories of leadership as developed in the mid 1900s via Ohio State and Michigan State Universities it is in fact seen as a very creative and flexible leadership theory (Northhouse, 2004, p 173).The transformational leader instills feelings of confidence, admiration and commitment in the followers. Such a leader inspires the followers to forgo their own interests for the good of the organization (Northhouse, 2004, p 178). Transformational leaders appeal to the moral and ideals of followers and inspire them to look at problems in new and creative ways (Northhouse, 2004, p 183). Studies have correlated the transformational leader ship theory in the workplace leads to lower staff turnover rates, higher productivity and higher employee satisfaction.In summary, the evolution of leadership theories has developed from the relatively static and one-dimensional views of the personality traits and behavior theories studied in the 1900s to the dynamic and flexible theories of situational and transformational leadership theories developed in the late 1900s.ReferencesBlanchard, K. H, Zigarmi, P. and Zigarmi, D. (1999), Leadership and the One Minute Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Manager, New York, Harper Collins.Fleishman, E.A. (1953). The description of supervisory behavior. Personnel Psychology, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 37, 1-6Katz, D., Maccoby, N. and Morse, N.C. (1950). Productivity, Supervision and Morale in Ã Ã Ã an Office Situation. Ann Arbor, Survey Research Center.Northhouse, P.G. (2004). Leadership: Theory and Practice. New York, Sage Publications.
Creation science is a controversial nature study founded on principle that the existence of the cosmos is as a result of supernatural causes (Browning, 1997). Also referred to as scientific creationism, the study combines creation concepts mainly from the Christian and Islamic understanding with scientific discoveries. The creation accounts described in the book of Genesis from the Holy Bible and the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an are supported by Ã¢â¬Å"Creation ScienceÃ¢â¬ programs taught in some universities. These programs attempt to show how scientific discoveries are more consistent with creation accounts than they are with evolutionary theories suggested by earlier scientists such as Darwin (Browning, 1997). While such creation science concepts sometimes create some controversies, there should be no such problems and science and faith should be allowed to mingle. The most astounding problem is that science relies on empiricism while faith depends on believing on the unseen. However, science should be understood as manÃ¢â¬â¢s endeavors in understanding his universe and it is not unscientific to believe in deliberate creation of life. There are a number of evidences in the Holy Bible that can be used to study the modern Earth. For instance, the Great Flood in the story of Noah provides an understanding to the geological features in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Earth (Browning, 1997). In general, creation science should be supported to realize a large number of scientists supporting the paradigm that God creatively designed and formed the Earth while applying the scientific methods in gaining a deeper understanding to the question on the origin of life and the universe. The fields such as biblical archaeology and chronology, cosmology and philosophy of science are all the product of creation science and thus the thinking of creation science should be upheld to find answers to some of the questions pure science and pure religion fail to address. Reference: Browning, J. D (1997). NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s Ark: A feasibility study. Retrieved July 21, 2010 from http://mall. turnpike. net/C/cs/ark/allnotes. doc
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Outsourcing can be defined as transferring the jobs from the UK to India, China and other third world or low Ã¢â¬âwage countries. There are many advantages of outsourcing. The following paragraphs explain the relationship of outsourcing and the supply and demand economics theory(Cooke, 2005; pp 173 -180). BODY It is good business senses for multinational companies now outsource from many developing countries (like China and India). In fact, many organizations in the United Kingdom have outsourced their operations, set Ã¢â¬âup, maintenance of their computer systems and networks and production to other countries. A survey done on 162 European firms showed that half of the interviewed companies had outsourced most of their information technology jobs. These outsourced contracts form only 24 percent of Information Technology jobs. Definitely this had climbed up to 36 percent in 1998 in the United Kingdom alone. The main reason for the increase in outsourcing is the corporate priority to reduce labor and material costs. For, it costs higher to pay a European worker to do the same jobs in the United Kingdom (Bounfour 2003; pp. 84 -92). Likewise, production, call center and other jobs outsourced to China or India would cost less in terms of labor and raw materials (Richardson 1999; pp. 74-94). Evidently, it is good business senses for multinational companies now outsource from many developing countries. (Domberger 1998; p. 84 -90). It is good and bad for the UK economy for multinational companies now outsource from many developing countries (like China and India). Outsourcing is good because the public can buy the same quality products at lower prices. It is also good because lower labor cost will increase net profits. It is bad for the UK labor sector. Outsourcing has changed the labour demand in the UK. Outsourcing has caused the labour jobs especially in the manufacturing sector to decline in the UK and other European Union member states such as France and Germany according to the study by Hijzen et al in 2005. Thus, the imported products and raw materials from low Ã¢â¬âwage third world countries has greatly affected the UK companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ demand for European manufacturing and Information Technology workers for the period 1995 to 2000. Also, outsourcing has caused a . 6 percent employment in the European Union countries. Obviously, it is good and bad for the UK economy for multinational companies now outsource from many developing countries (Barrell, Choy and Kirby 2006; pp 63 -67). There are gainers and losers from outsourcing UK jobs. First, the people hired to do the outsourcing jobs in India, China and other third world and low Ã¢â¬âwage countries will gain from outsourcing contracts. The companies that outsource the jobs will gain because now they will pay lesser labour wages for the same quality job. And, it costs lesser to outsource to China, India and other countries because the raw materials there are definitely cheaper. Further, the biggest gainers here are the entire UK and EU market because they can now buy the goods at lower prices as a result of some outsourcing companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ reduction of their selling prices brought about by the lower labour and materials costs and expenses(Lever, 1997; pp. 37-42. The losers are the workers in the United Kingdom and the European Union member states because they are fighting a losing battle to the low wage workers in outsourcing country recipients. But the biggest losers are the competitors in the UK and EU market because the UK company that has outsourced production and IT jobs can now lower their selling prices and still earn the same old profit margins which their competitors in the same industry cannot afford to for fear of losing money(Maromonte, 1998; pp. 13-25). EconomicsÃ¢â¬â¢ supply and demand theory states that as the prices of goods decrease, then the demand for the products will increase. Glaringly, there are gainers and losers from outsourcing UK jobs. Outsourcing has many advantages and disadvantages.Ã The supply and demand theory explains that outsourcing jobs will increase demand for products being sold because prices of goods will decline. The competitors and UK work workers are the greatest losers from outsourcing. The UK and EU market(customers) and the company that have outsourced jobs are the greatest winners from outsourcing. Conclusively, outsourcing will benefit more people (market) than if it is not implemented. UK business, including the competitors must now jump into the boat of outsourcing to survive until the next century.
In my opinion, the play Hamlet is more tragic than Agamemnon. They are both tragedies as they both fulfill AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of tragedy as they both depict the downfall of a basically good person through some fatal error or misjudgment, which produces suffering and insight on the part of the protagonist and arousing pity and fear on the part of the audience. They also have all the elements of Greek tragedy such as hubris, catharsis, peripeteia, anagnorisis, and hamartia (Ã¢â¬Å"Ancient Greek TragedyÃ¢â¬ ). The most important reason that Hamlet is more tragic, in my opinion, is because the protagonist, Hamlet, is an integral part of the play and his character is much more developed. In Agamemnon , the protagonist, Agamemnon, is a secondary character to his wife who, in my opinion is the main character. Hamlet is a tragic hero, as is Agamemnon, following AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s criteria for the elements of a tragic hero. For example, they both evoke the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s pity and fear, have a major flaw of character and are destined to fall in some way (Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy in DramaÃ¢â¬ ). However, because Hamlet is the main character, we see, hear and understand more of his character. When Hamlet delivers his many dramatic soliloquies about mortality, betrayal, and the futility of life, he shows us his tortured world and the anguish, grief, and uncertainty which eventually takes over his life, leading to his death (Ã¢â¬Å"Hamlet ToneÃ¢â¬ ). As the reader, I felt so much sympathy for Hamlet and this made the play more tragic. On the other hand, the reader knows more about Agamemnon from the Chorus and other characters, rather than from the character himself. The reader has much less insight into his personality and feelings and I found that, as the tragic hero, he lacked the emotion of Ham let.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Sickle Cell Anemia occurs in about 1 out of 500 African American births, and 1 out of 36,000 Hispanic births. It is a lifelong disease, and sometime can be deadly. According to Dr. Whittaker, in our region there are abnormally higher cases of Sickle Cell Anemia, so I found it important to learn more about the disease, what cause it, what are the symptoms as well as the options of treatments for this disease. According to www. invista. com, it is believed that sickle cell disease occurs more often in people from parts of the world where Ã¢â¬Å"malariaÃ¢â¬ is or was common. Also the coincident of people who carry the sickle cell trait are less likely to catch malaria make a lot of us wonder of these two diseases are associated. Ã¢â¬Å"In the 1940s, E. A. Beet, a British medical officer stationed in Northern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), observed that blood from malaria patients who had sickle cell trait had fewer malarial parasites than blood from patients without the trait. Ã¢â¬ ( innvista) There are researchers have came up with several links between the two diseases. MalariaÃ¢â¬ is caused by a type of parasite that completes its life cycle in humanÃ¢â¬â¢s red blood cell. This parasite enters the bloodstream with the aid of a female (Anopheles) mosquito. With individual who has Sickle Cell Anemia, the red blood cell break down when infected with this parasite disallow the development of the Ã¢â¬Å"malariaÃ¢â¬ parasite. There are others explanation such as: Hb S in Sickle Cell individual leads to the polymerization of hemoglobin and this prevent the parasite from ingest the hemoglobin which it needs for its life cycle, therefore the parasite get destroyed. Also the parasites of Ã¢â¬Å"MalariaÃ¢â¬ need oxygen for their development however a patient with Sickle Cell Anemia canÃ¢â¬â¢t provide them just that, therefore they cannot continue their life cycle. There are still questions regarding the relationship between Sickle Cell Anemia and Ã¢â¬Å"malariaÃ¢â¬ , but the explanations offered are quite interested. Sickle Cell Anemia is an inherit disease. An individual who has two copies of the trait will inherit Sickle Cell Anemia from the parents. Those people who only have one copy of this trait will become a carrier for Sickle Cell Anemia, and if their husband or wife also a carrier, the disease will keep passing on. Ã¢â¬Å"In Sickle Cell Anemia, the havoc caused by the abnormal hemoglobin s (HbS), results from a change in just one of the 146 amino acids in a beta chain of the globin moleculeÃ¢â¬ ( Marieb 642). It is amazing how one tiny change in our body can has such dramatic effect, but on the other hand they all possible; humanÃ¢â¬â¢s body is extremely complex. The disease has to do with the protein hemoglobin found in human red blood cell. A normal personÃ¢â¬â¢s red blood cell has a round, doughnut shape without the whole in the middle; however a sickled red blood cell will take on a crested moon shape, and these sickled cells are fragile and prone to rupture. The normal life span of a healthy red blood cell is about 120 days before spleen takes out the bad ones and the bone marrow replace them. The sickle cells will go bad in only about 10 to 20 days. Imagine the spleen has to work extra hard to get rid of these bad blood cells, and with patients of sickle cell anemia about all of their hemoglobins are bad, therefore spleen has to take out all of them; thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why these patients have to get their blood transfuse regularly. These sickled cells after got produced by red bone marrow can go back and forth between being normally shaped and sickle shaped until they eventually become sickle shaped permanently. And Instead of moving through the bloodstream easily like normal red blood cells, these sickle cells are very sticky and so they can clog blood vessels. These events interfere with oxygen delivery, leaving the victims gasping for air and extreme pain. Bone and chest pain are particularly severe, and infection and stroke are common sequels. Ã¢â¬ ( Marieb 642). Sickle cell anemia produces a chronic anemia which may become life- threatening when hemolytic crises, which is the breakdown of red blood cells, which is when bone m arrow fails to produce blood cells. These crises occur under condition of low oxygen, such as during intense exercises, masses of hemoglobin molecules in each red blood cell cut out its normal disk shape. For some individual the Ã¢â¬Å"crisesÃ¢â¬ can last hours, days or even weeks; some has Ã¢â¬Å"crisesÃ¢â¬ once a year, for others they occur way more often. There are several symptoms that can be diagnosed as soon as infant is four months old. Ã¢â¬Å"The clinical course of sickle cell anemia does not follow a single pattern; some patients have mild symptoms, and some have very severe symptoms. The basic problem, however, is the same: the sickle-shaped red blood cells tend to get stuck in narrow blood vessels, blocking the flow of bloodÃ¢â¬ (Bownas, Jennifer). And they are: the period of pain (mentioned above), hand-foot syndrome ( babies with swollen hands and feet), jaundice (yellowish color found on the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s skin or/and in the white parts of their eyes), frequent infections, Delayed growth and puberty in children and often a slight build in adults. The slow rate of growth is caused by a shortage of red blood cells. There is also vision problem, because of the eyes not getting enough nourishment from circulating red blood cells, these types of damages can be serious enough to cause blindness if not discover on time. Sickle Cells Anemia is a disease with many complications, and all of them are dangerous for patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health. One of which is referred to as ERD (exercise-related death). This scenario happens when a patient with Sickle Cells Anemia attend into a lot of physical practice. Ã¢â¬Å"The possibility that previously healthy young people with sickle cell trait might suffer increased mortality from exercise was first suggested by observations of enlisted recruits in US Armed Forces basic training. A military trainee with Hb AS suffered exercise related hypernatremia during physical training in the field. He only survived a critical illness that included acute renal failure because of dialysisÃ¢â¬ (Kark, John). And also during that single summer, there were already four deaths among recruiting at this area, all of them were black and had Sickle Cells Anemia. So John Kark, whom is the author of this article, was very positive about the significant risk associate between Sickle Cells and ERD. And I think this is reasonable, because the nature of Sickle Cell Anemia is to decrease dramatically the amount of red blood cell circulating in the humanÃ¢â¬â¢s body, which will cause the lack of oxygen in multiple organs and muscles in the body. And when an individual with Sickle Cell try so hard on these physical activities and keep pushing themselves forward, itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to avoid damage to the body, which is very unfortunate. Another big complication with Sickle Cell Anemia is infections. Patients of this disease are extremely prone to infection due to their abnormal red blood cells. Recently the screening tests for Sickle Cell Anemia were required for newborns. Before this happen, 35% of infant with Sickle Cell died from infection. The most common bacteria that usually attack these infants are treptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenza which can cause pneumonia, blood infections, or meningitis). A death can occur to these infants only a few hours after the fever. Acute Chest Syndrome is also yet another dangerous complication of Sickle Cell Disease. It is the leading cause of illness among the Sickle Cell Anemia patients. Ã¢â¬Å"Pulmonary disease, manifested as the acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a common complication of sickle cell anemia. It is the second most common cause of hospitalization in persons with sickle cell anemia and accounts for 25% of premature deaths. Ã¢â¬ (Gladwin, Mark) ACS occurs when the lung tissues are starved for oxygen during a crisis. ACS can be caused from infection that lead us back to Sickle Cell Anemia, to blockage of blood vessels which also remind us of Sickle Cell disease, because of the sickle red blood cells with their crested moon shape, as mentioned earlier, instead of moving smoothly along the blood stream, these sickle cells are very sticky and tend to block the blood vessels. There are a few symptoms that can be recognized such as: high fever, rapid breathing, wheezing or cough, and finally acute chest pain. As of today, the only potential cure of Sickle Cell Anemia is bone marrow transplant. However according to the mayo clinicÃ¢â¬â¢s website, it is extremely difficult to find a matching donor and also, the procedure is very risky and can be life threatening. So for treating Sickle Cell Anemia, there are more aims to reduce the pain of the Ã¢â¬Å"crisesÃ¢â¬ . As a result, treatment for sickle cell anemia is usually aimed at avoiding crises, relieving symptoms and preventing complicationsÃ¢â¬ (Mayo Clinic Staff). Sickle Cell Anemia victims always have to take antibiotics because of their sensitivity, they are prone for infection. Blood transfusion is an option, with this procedure the patient will get supplied with healthy red blood cells from donors, but this can also be risky, because the new red blood cells also carry with them irons, this can c ause excessive iron build up in patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ body; so people who get blood transfusion also need others treatments to reduce iron level. A prescription drug called Hydroxyurea is usually used to treat cancer can be use in the severe case of Sickle Cell Anemia for adults; it reduces the frequency of painful crises and may reduce the need for blood transfusions. When one experience Ã¢â¬Å"crisesÃ¢â¬ , it can be helpful to have supplemental oxygen, which provides extra oxygen and help breathing easier. Doctors and scientists still in the lab to experiment some more possible cure for Sickle Cell Anemia patients, hopefully they will be successful in finding a complete ure. Sickle Cell Anemia is a serious lifelong disease. It is hard to live with it, and it is just as hard to live with a loved one that has Sickle Cell Anemia. The Ã¢â¬Å"Health Education ResearchÃ¢â¬ of Oxford Journal has done a study on mothers who have children with Sickle Cells in Western Nigeria :Ã¢â¬Å" Financial stress and disease factors were met with confrontation, while family sources of stress were either complained about, accepted or avoided. (Olley, Lydia) Oxford Journal also mentioned that less educated family members (especially the mothers) get in more stress than others Ã¢â¬Å"Higherlevels of stress were associated with less educated and older womenÃ¢â¬ (Olley, Lydia). Hopefully in the near future, there will be more education, counseling about Sickle Cell Anemia to everyone, so we can take care of the patients better, and bring better attitude and hope toward them, because I believe they need that the most especially from a family member. Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is a blood disorder that affects the 11th chromosome which is a hemoglobin gene. Hemoglobin is a protein located in red blood cells (RBCs) that carries oxygen through the body. This disorder is inherited from two parents with abnormal genes that are heterozygous (Rr). This means that both parents who have the trait may pass on the disorder to their offspring. The phenotype makeup is recessive. Those who inherit a normal copy of the chromosome 11 and a mutated chromosome will carry the trait, though would not show any symptoms. Normal red blood cells are soft and flexible to fit thought small vessels.Sickle cell anemia causes these blood cells to stiffen and curve, almost like a crescent moon. The abnormal cells (erythrocytes) become stuck and block a narrow vessel which disables oxygen to pass through and causes pain and damage to organs. Many organs such as the liver and spleen become damaged due to lack of oxygen. When the spleen becomes damaged, patience will ex perience many infections. Pain is also caused by the sickle blood cells becoming caught in vessels called crises. Jaundice (yellowness to eyes and skin) can occur in babies due to liver damage. Sickle cell anemia can be diagnosed by a simple blood test, mostly to newborns.The blood test given to those who werenÃ¢â¬â¢t tested at birth is called the hemoglobin electrophoresis. It determines if you have the disease or is a carrier of the trait. It can be treated by blood transfusions from a donor with healthy blood cells, or a bone marrow transplant. Some interesting facts are that: normal blood cells can live up to 120 days, but sickle blood cells live up to 10 to 20 days. When the red blood cells are damaged, the body kills the red blood cells off which causes chronic anemia. African Americans are mostly affected with this disease due to inter-marriage. in 12 African Americans have the trait and 1 in 500 actually have the disease. Also, Sickle cell anemia can be traced back to the Mediterranean and Middle East area. The humid, wet climate attracts mosquitos and the mosquitos transport malaria. Surprisingly, those with Sickle cell anemia are immune to malaria. The last interesting fact is that my mother is actually a carrier of the Sickle cell trait. My older sister and I werenÃ¢â¬â¢t affected of the trait because our father didnÃ¢â¬â¢t carry any defected chromosome. Unfortunately, my little sister, Joy, is also a carrier of the trait even though her father isnÃ¢â¬â¢t affected. Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is a blood disorder that affects the 11th chromosome which is a hemoglobin gene. Hemoglobin is a protein located in red blood cells (RBCs) that carries oxygen through the body. This disorder is inherited from two parents with abnormal genes that are heterozygous (Rr). This means that both parents who have the trait may pass on the disorder to their offspring. The phenotype makeup is recessive. Those who inherit a normal copy of the chromosome 11 and a mutated chromosome will carry the trait, though would not show any symptoms. Normal red blood cells are soft and flexible to fit thought small vessels.Sickle cell anemia causes these blood cells to stiffen and curve, almost like a crescent moon. The abnormal cells (erythrocytes) become stuck and block a narrow vessel which disables oxygen to pass through and causes pain and damage to organs. Many organs such as the liver and spleen become damaged due to lack of oxygen. When the spleen becomes damaged, patience will ex perience many infections. Pain is also caused by the sickle blood cells becoming caught in vessels called crises. Jaundice (yellowness to eyes and skin) can occur in babies due to liver damage. Sickle cell anemia can be diagnosed by a simple blood test, mostly to newborns.The blood test given to those who werenÃ¢â¬â¢t tested at birth is called the hemoglobin electrophoresis. It determines if you have the disease or is a carrier of the trait. It can be treated by blood transfusions from a donor with healthy blood cells, or a bone marrow transplant. Some interesting facts are that: normal blood cells can live up to 120 days, but sickle blood cells live up to 10 to 20 days. When the red blood cells are damaged, the body kills the red blood cells off which causes chronic anemia. African Americans are mostly affected with this disease due to inter-marriage. in 12 African Americans have the trait and 1 in 500 actually have the disease. Also, Sickle cell anemia can be traced back to the Mediterranean and Middle East area. The humid, wet climate attracts mosquitos and the mosquitos transport malaria. Surprisingly, those with Sickle cell anemia are immune to malaria. The last interesting fact is that my mother is actually a carrier of the Sickle cell trait. My older sister and I werenÃ¢â¬â¢t affected of the trait because our father didnÃ¢â¬â¢t carry any defected chromosome. Unfortunately, my little sister, Joy, is also a carrier of the trait even though her father isnÃ¢â¬â¢t affected.
Report on International Business Machines Corp (IBM) - Case Study Example Firstly, there was the disruptive change on the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture as a result of the telecommuting. Secondly, there was the problem with the initial technological support. The first issue has been identified by several authors as being a key stumbling for managing successful change efforts (Beer, Eisenstat, & Spector, 1990; Heracleous & Langham, 1996; Johnson, 1992; Kotter, 2007). All these authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ viewpoints are looked at within the report. On the other hand, this report does not find the second issue of problems with technological support to be major because while an organization is implementing change one anticipates a state of flux during which systems and technologies have to experience instabilities. Johnson (1992) defined the cultural paradigm as the core set of beliefs and assumptions, held relatively commonly by management and employees, that are specific and relevant to that given organization and that are learned over time. Telecommuting changed the way of doing things at IBM for example some managers lost prestigious privileges such as private offices with private secretaries and team members became physically dispersed which made inter-team communication much harder. The first issue, the negative impact of telecommuting on IBM-IndianaÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural paradigm is analyzed using Johnson (1992) cultural web approach. The second issue is largely a technological issue that has to arise as the organization transitions from one stable organizational system to another. Organizational culture and managing change According to Johnson (1992) culture plays a big role in the development of strategy, the management of the resulting strategic change and also on the choices made by an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership that lead up to both strategic development and change. In this case telecommuting presents a major strategic change for IBM-Indiana. The culture web is a tool proposed by Johnson (1992) as a suitable device for conducti ng an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture audit. According to Heracleous and Langham (1996) the cultural web allows managers to conceptualize the organization either within an interpretive frame of reference (what the organization is) or as a variable in a functionalist frame of reference (something an organization has). The culture web comprises of seven elements: paradigm, rituals and routines, organizational structure, power structures, control systems, symbolic aspects and stories as shown in Figure 1 below. Almost all the cultural web elements were greatly affected by the introduction to telecommuting. With telecommuting employees had to contend with new rituals and routines for example maintaining accurate and up to date schedule of activities on the computer to enable scheduling of meetings and teleconferences. Formalized control systems that monitor and therefore emphasize what is important at IBM, in order to focus attention and activity also had to be changed to reflect the ne w arrangement of partly off-site and on-site office arrangements. Managers who had private offices and private secretaries lost these huge symbolic aspects of being managers at IBM and the loss of group-work setting diminished opportunities for social contact and casual communication that
Friday, September 27, 2019
The impact of technology in India - Research Paper Example The main industries, according to Bakshi, that deal with the trade are IT services, online businesses, and services dependent on IT and software/hardware sales. Combined with a consequential growth in skilled labour, the industry has immensely grown in size and potential. Agriculture is an area that has been touted to receive much benefit from the advancements in technology. This has been due to initiatives that assist farmers in disseminating information regarding their merchandise in real time. Linking the locals to the Internet provides them with information about price in timely manner; they get more on farming practices and execute more transactions without having to deal with intermediaries. Such factors combined lead to a transformed and thus a more sustainable chain of production that is beneficial to the farmers as well as the end users. Research has shown direct gains from online trading to buyers and sellers of agricultural products (Banker and Mitra, 2005). There have been significant positive impacts on yields as a result of technology. Bennet, Ismael, Kambhampati and Morse (2004) were able to clearly show the positive impacts brought about by genetically modified cotton and the better economic performance of the product on coffee farmer s in Maharashtra, India. The authors found out high yields on the genetically modified type as compared to the normal cotton. Profit margins were higher on this strain due to respective reduction in costs of production. Other than the direct economic indicators like agriculture, as observed, technology has also affected the Indian culture. Globalization has resulted in increased communication channels between unlike cultures. The increased propensity to communicate between the different cultures has resulted in local influence to such issues as the degree of choice to study, study habits and much more. Globalization of technology has brought about changes in dressing habits amongst
Education - Research Paper Example EducationÃ¢â¬â¢s vital role in molding humanity makes it necessarily be accessible for all. All governments of the world are compelled to make education affordable for everyone. It is the obligation of the state to take necessary measures to promote, protect and avail their citizens the right to education. However, despite of the fact that education as a right is acknowledged universally, millions of people throughout the world had yet to enjoy this right. According to Global Issues, nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or even just sign their names. Meanwhile, UNICEF data reveals that there are 121 M children out of education worldwide. In 2005, about 72 million primary school ages, wherein 57 percent were girls, were not able to study. Aside from these problems, education is perceived to become more marginalized in the years to come as governments all over the world tend to reduce if not cut-off their budget to education to cope up with the globa l economic crisis. Given this situation, this paper will delve on the current situation of the educational system. How far have the governments of the world gone in making education accessible for the people? Or are measures being taken by the governments only aggravate the already serious data of lack of education? Salient Features of Education According to the CESCR, there are four salient features of education namely: availability, accessibility, acceptability and adaptability. For this paper, two major features will be elaborated. Availability means that there should be adequate numbers of educational institutions and programs existing within the jurisdiction of the State. These educational institutions should follow sound technical requirements to function effectively, from sanitation facilities to trained and well-compensated teachers. Another important feature of education is accessibility which means that education must be enjoyed by all without discrimination. Accessibility was further described by the CESCR with three interrelated aspects: non-discrimination which means that education must be served above all to the most vulnerable sectors of the society; physical accessibility which ensures that education is within a safe and well-located; and economic accessibility which ensures that education should be free for all, this also requires the State gradually commence free secondary and higher education (Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights). Education in peril Despite of the numerous international conventions and obligations in securing educationÃ¢â¬â¢s accessibility to all, state responsibility to education seems to have gradually diminished. Over the years, budget cut on education has been a world-wide phenomenon. In America, public school system is being assaulted with budget cuts. According to the Center for Budget and Policy Priorities, at least 43 states have cut assistance to public colleges and universities which reduced faculty and staff and consequently increased tuition fees. Budget cuts to K-12 education have also been implemented in at least 34 states plus the District of Columbia (Nicholas Johnson). To name a few: In Minnesota, around 9,400 students will lose
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Geology and the Glacial History of the SW British Columbia Region - Research Paper Example A geological chart of the SW province illustrates the numerous diverse rock types arranged in a complex pattern, for example, the map specifics show intrusive igneous rocks, which are characteristically coarse crystalline in nature. Regardless of the differences in mineralogical composition, these plutonic rock types tend to be related to a specific kind of terrain. These different rock types are structured in a complex range of simple stocks to the huge multi faceted batholith of the Coast Mountains. These means that the rocks in the SW region are comparatively resilient to weathering as they are comprised mainly of tough minerals made of quartz, hornblende, and feldspar structured as a unified fabric of interconnecting crystals. Consequently, inclines on these rock landforms are usually steep making the topography rugged. Glacially fashioned cliffs survive with little alteration, particularly in enormous or thinly jointed rocks. Joints and faults establish outlines of weakness and are shadowed by cliffs, gorges, and depressions. A brief description of tectonic history is essential in understanding the SW province since the key topographic structures of the region are tectonically managed and numerous mountainous ranges owe their current high altitude to recent fault uplift and not resistance to erosion. Tectonics is established as the major architectural forces in the SW province of British Colombia. Southwestern British Columbia known is also recognized as one of the most seismically lively regions in Canada.
Employment law paper - Essay Example This is simply because any act of a supervisor can be construed to be the act of an employer, especially when an employee is impacted on a job benefit. In cases where the employee is not impacted in tangible terms, here the employers can limit the liability under the following defense: a) The employer has been noted to exercise reasonable care for the prevention of any form of harassment, and b) The employee has not taken complete advantage of any preventive measures that have been provided by the employers. The EEOC General Counsel explains that the cases that involve the English only rule or any restrictive language policies and any language discrimination are given first importance for the commission. As per the EEOC, employers cannot and must not target the workers based on discrimination based on fears, stereotypes or even fear of the language or country of origin. Based on the Title VII, Sears has clearly violated the law, as it clearly explains, no employment discrimination based on any factor like race, age, color, sex, national origin or even religion is allowed. In this case Mary has been fired from the company for speaking in Spanish on the sales floor with a co-worker. This is clearly a violation of the law and clearly shows discrimination against the employees. The fact that the employees are allowed to talk in Spanish with the customers however not with the coworkers, is a clear discrimination. Mary could have been given a warning however, not fired as it is not ethical an d completely violates the Title VII and the EEOC rules. The Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications allows the employers to make discrimination and permits them to employers of American Airlines to discriminate and to make the pilots and flight attendants to work on religious holidays as well. This however is not fair and it is important to understand, when companies prefer to have a diversified work force, it is
Organisational Theory - Essay Example Needless to say, the resultant assumption is that public sector organisations should undergo a process of organisational restructuring as would allow for the adoption of more efficient and effective management paradigms. There are, however, two problems in the above stated. The first is that the notion of decentralised organisational structures as being more inherently suited for the adoption of total quality and other management paradigms which allow for efficient and effective proactive responses to shifting external environmental conditions, than are centralised organisational structures, is fallacious and based on assumptions and not fact (Cane and Thurston, 2000; Flynn, 2002; Dent, Chandler and Barry, 2004). The second is that, ultimately, organisational structure must be consciously selected on the basis of that which is most suitable for the organisation in question, the culture which it aspires to and the demands of the industry in which it is located and the market which it serves. As a strategy for determining the relationship between organisational structure and organisational performance, the research will critically analyse both of centralised and decentralised organisational structures, together with a review of ... ave determined that public sector organisations are largely modelled after the traditional bureaucratic organisational structure, as influenced by Weber (Gibson, 1966; Cane and Thurston, 2000; Dent, Chandler and Barry, 2004). The implication is that all of the four components of organisational structure-labour division, departmentalisation, span of control and scope of decision-making-are shaped by bureaucratic-traditionalist managerial theory. This, according to numerous management scholars, has only served to offset an organisation's inherent capacity for flexible response to changing external conditions and has, in the long run, resulted in the formulation of mechanistic and atrophying organisations (Gibson, 1966; Ford and Slocum, 1977; Cane and Thurston, 2000; Flynn, 2002; Dent, Chandler and Barry, 2004). As explained by Flynn (2002) among others, labour division within the public sector organisation is invariably highly specialised. Task specialisations are clearly articulated and each employee has a specific set of job functions, clearly set out in his/her job description, which he/she must operate by (Bourgeois, 1984; Bourn and Bourn, 1995; Flynn, 2002). While the advantages of specialisation and clearly articulated job descriptions are practically too numerous to articulate, the disadvantages are enormous. Certainly specialisation implies that employees are often matched to jobs according to their skill-sets and explicit job descriptions mean that employees always have a clear understanding of the tasks they are required to perform and know the boundaries of their professional responsibilities (Bourgeois, 1984; Bourn and Bourn, 1995; Flynn, 2002; Mctavish, 2004). Excessive specialisation, however, as is often the case with private sector organisations
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
British Airways - Essay Example Apart from scheduled airline, the organisation also operates both domestic and international carriage of mail and freight and ancillary services (Brownsell 2010). BA flies to over 300 destinations carrying over 33 million passengers in its 238 aircrafts (British Airways 2013, Table 1). From the time of its privatisation in the year 1987, the company has beaten the competition in the market to grow worldwide. The entry of its former Chief Executive, Willie Walsh in 2005 saw BA complete Terminal 5 at Heathrow in addition to various other accomplishments. In spite of suffering from the global economic recession, the airline looks forward to being the most responsible airline globally. As such, the firm dedicates much effort to the development of strategic direction and guiding principles to enable it attain its objectives. Key among them includes efforts geared towards the development and sustenance of effective marketing. With the ever changing marketing environment (Haberberg & Rieple 2007), there arises the need for continuous detailed and structured analysis of core dimensions. With the increase in complexity and frequency of terrorist attacks such as the September 11 New York attacks and the July 2005 London attack, there has been unprecedented political instability. As such, deregulated firms like BA need systems that enhance quick decisions. The open skies agreement has significantly changed the regulatory framework. Considering legal factors, BA suffers from Trade UnionsÃ¢â¬â¢ actions including numerous strike actions in 2004 and 2005. As such, the firm has to consider various legislations on employee rights, environmental concerns and customer rights. Economically, with demand for air travel being highly income elastic, there exists a positive correlation between global economy and air travel demand. The rising cost of oil due to the political climate
Three questions on sexual harassement - Essay Example For her statement would indirectly convey that she did not face serious sexual harassment, and thus she might not file a complaint if the related investigator finds such scenario. As per the The Equal Pay Act of 1963 (EPA), it is clearly mentioned that different pay to men and women working under similar situation and possessing similar qualification falls under sexual harassment. Because here it is proved that the only reason for such discrimination is made on the basis of different gender (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, n.d.). But if it is proved that the salary has been differentiated based on qualification, then Jolene Carter shall not get a positive result from her complaint. On the same context, if it is found that there were no other reasons strong enough for such difference, it shall be accepted that her allegation can be considered as true. US Department of Transportation, (2001). Preventing Sexual Harassment. A Fact Sheet for Employees. Retrieved Online on October 25, 2010 from http://www.dotcr.ost.dot.gov/Documents/complaint/Preventing_Sexual_Harassment.htm U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, No Date. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Laws, Regulations, Guidance & MOUs. Retrieved Online on October 25, 2010 from
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
How drug use in the 60's and 70's affected society - then and now - Research Paper Example Alcohol has been abused since the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s and has left a number of family devastated, as the familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ sole bread winners abuse the drug which may eventually lead to their deaths or insanity (Teff. 1975). The economy was affected as abled body people who could improve the economy became victims of drug abuse. Today, alcohol is also being abused and has devastating effects on the society ranging from road accidents as a result of heavy drinking to murder and suicidal cases in families (Abraham. 1988). Alcohol is not the only drug that has been abused; we have many cases of bhang and nicotine illegal drug use. In fact in the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s, cocaine was highly abused as there was no proper way to curb its use (Avraham. 1988). In the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s illegal drug abuse was on its optimum among sports men and sports women, as well as musicians and top celebrities; here athletes and musicians used to take performance enhancing drugs so as to boost their performance and confidence respectively. Drug use among adolescents was and is still a nightmare in our societies for a number of reasons. Adolescents today, who are basically involved in illicit drug use, are simply separating themselves from the normality of society as a way of Ã¢â¬Ëliberation (Teff. 1975). This has tremendous effects on America societies, as these kids end up joining gangs, partaking in crimes and terrorizing American societies. This was also the case in the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s where adolescents who engaged in drugs were a complete nightmare to societies as they were the pillar of almost all crimes. Many dropped out of school leaving their parents devastated. Drug misuse also affected both societies by introducing and expanding prostitution. Many of those practicing prostitution in today societies are basically youths who run away from home as a result of drug abuse. This is a disgrace to society and a country as a whole as it lacks morality. In the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s prostitution too
The role of Business Analysis within organsiations and how it has evolved over the past thirty years - Research Paper Example Concurrent with globalization is the fast phase development in computer and information technology. The developments in the field transformed not only information itself but also the manner of its collection, handling, processing and storing (Axelrod 2004). In this regard, both globalization and information technology have undeniably altered the nature of business and the manner of conducting businesses (Stead & Stead 2006). In light of these developments, the paper will be looking into the role and evolution of business analysis within the last thirty years and possibly come up with trends and projections within the field in the next five years. In this regard, this study aims to understand the notion of business analysis. Likewise, it aims to identify the role of business analysis in an organization. Finally, it tries to know what will be the possible trends and developments in the field of business analysis in the next five years. As such, the main questions of the research are Ã¢â¬Ëwhat is the role of business analysis?Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëwhere is business analysis going?Ã¢â¬â¢ These questions are significant because it deals with one concrete instance in contemporary society where the needs of society and technology meet (Mumford 2006) and it seeks to find out how to enhance further the symbiotic relation between man and technology in the business world. To address the questions of the study, a documentary research had been conducted. The electronic databases Academic Source Premier, Business Source Premier, Jstor, and Google Scholar had been searched using the combination of the following key terms: business analysis, computer and information technology, globalization, nature of organization, and business. Articles written only in English and published in journals from the period of 2005 Ã¢â¬â 2010 had been selected. Likewise, books and empirical studies had been included in the searched. Excluded in the selection were monographs, position papers, editorials and
Monday, September 23, 2019
International relation - Assignment Example Globalization involves the interconnection and interdependent of economy and culture of all countries internationally, and able become able to exert influence upon other nations. However, globalization has some effects on the state and the citizens involved. Globalization in social science according to (Keohane & Nye Web), asserts that it all converge on the concept that all human activities across all regions of the world are highly linked together as a result of the technological and social changes. Globalism according to the professors is the state of the world consisting of the network of independence that results from the constant flow of services, people, goods, culture, and ideas internationally. According to Keohane and Nye, globalization can lead to corporation among the separate individuals or organizations that are not in harmony with each other. The two professors in their discussion agreed that the significance role of globalization involves bringing together departed groups through the process of negotiation known as policy coordination. The agreement tries to bring peace and harmony to individuals within and internationally. The task of complex interdependence brought some complications. Keohane and Nye came up with a publication that had an in-depth understanding of the impacts of studying the international relations. The two authors try to explain the significant of an individual to study international relations (Keohane & Nye Web).
Analysis - Essay Example Most Americans agree that fast food is unhealthy and has bad consequences but they still eat it daily because their lifestyle demands such practices. they do not recognize how much it affects them. The article starts with a good introduction that expresses its clear objectives and points of view way to reach the point and grasp grape the American Americans readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention, which is Ã¢â¬Å"sportÃ¢â¬ , because Because most Americans love sports. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s technique is effective because of the inclusion of the subject on sport which and it could be the first thing to be noticed in the an article. After mentioning sport, the authors introduces the problem and explains it and separates it out in details, supporting and support each part of the problem with scientific researches. It is shown that researches can effectively perfectly warn the reader from the ill effects of cheap fast food. Moreover, Then it gives some examples to support the researches. Finally, the ar ticle provides solutions and encourages readers asking to take an action to solve the that issue wherein efforts are exerted either by form the government or from the people. Appealing to Logos, the article has a very convincing way to make the reader be easily drawn to agree with on the author side. It mentions how the problem of cheap fast food could make bad consequences. For example, water pollution is unacceptable an acceptable to people because it affects their health and could make them ill or at risk. It also mentions that food industries cause water pollution because of the practices in garbage disposals and cleaning. Therefore, the author argues that fast food industry is synonymous to water pollution and this makes the two conditions simply unacceptable. , and then it mentions food industry and how it turns to cause water pollution and that makes food industry has the same consequences of water pollution, what logically makes food industry an acceptable as much as water p ollution is. Furthermore, it mentions cancer which is probably one of the most dangerous dangerousness complaints of customers because as it is commonly known, cancer could cause deaths if not very expensive and long process of treatments. in the and for sure most people know the deadly effects of it, and then the The article also mentions hormones that are be injected to cattle and seeds in order to make them grow fast and meet the demands of fast food chains. However, the hormones have diverse effects on humans who partake of the treated animals and other food products. This practice is unacceptable as well because it is already a parallel to cancer. bulking up faster to make easy fast food, that Hormones have dicey consequences which transfer to fast food and that cause breast and prostate cancer, which make that fast food an acceptable and dangerous as cancer is. In addition, the article mentions how air pollution is caused during the process so that the author persuades readers not to support the fast food industry by buying their products. It also mentions how air pollution is another undesirable issue and persuades readers that how manures can pollute air with chemicals elements., which make manures that used to make cattle and seeds grow faster another dungarees issue and the same as air pollution.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Effective Presentation - Essay Example Leveraging reputation many times means reminding others of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s past perhaps through stories. Character shows that one is a 3 dimensional human, with a few flaws. It presents them as affected by the same problems and pressures as others and then shows their virtue and values. Credibility depends on expertise and how this is portrayed. For people to believe you, they need to see that you believe in yourself. It requires one to talk as if they cannot be challenged and shows others to look up to them. Pathos appeals to the emotions of those listening, seeking to excite them or rouse their interests. One can do this by appealing to the values of the people. For example, one can tell stories of poor values and how they harmed innocent people. Most people involved in dubious charity organizations to uplifting the living standards of the poor in developing countries, use pathos to convince their sponsors. Ethos is then used to show ones values and how important other people are to you. The approach, though very inhumane, seems to work as people in developing countries have become rich through using funny methods such as the poor as their stepping stone to richness. You can also work with their goals and interests and perhaps challenge their beliefs. It involves use of language to affect emotions. Touching on the emotions of the people is the easiest way to win them over, and this trait makes pathos a great way of persuasion. Logos focuses on the argument. It uses cool logic and rational explanations and evidences to convince listeners. Scientific proof is based on empirical evidence so that if one argues without evidence, a scientist would dismiss the argument as metaphysical. Evidence cannot be refuted, it is difficult to deny without bringing up the question of its validity. It can include statistics, pictures or even recounted experience. It may also be evoked when giving evidence to give
Different Alcohols Essay The length of time the water is heated for is important as a short period of time will not heat the water sufficiently enough to take accurate results. However, heating the water for too long will boil the water to 100i C and therefore the results will not show any trend, as this is the maximum temperature for water. I chose to heat the water for 150 seconds (2. 5min) as this was a suitable time. METHOD * Set-up apparatus as shown in diagram. Fill calorimeter with 100cmi of distilled water and record temperature in i C with thermometer for 30 seconds to allow an accurate reading. Read thermometer at eye level in order to reduce parallax error due the reflection of light through the glass.Ã Select burner and check the height of the flame is 4cm using a ruler. Change length of wick using tweezers to change the height of the flame.Ã Weigh the burner filled with the desired alcohol with the lid on it using a top pan balance. Ensure the balance is on a flat stable surface and place burner on pan gently in order to keep reading accurate. I shall use the first four alcohols in the series: methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol. Record mass in grams to the nearest hundredth.Ã Clamp the calorimeter 7cm above the top of the burner and place lid on calorimeter properly. Measure the height of calorimeter above burner using a ruler. Place burner on a heat-proof mat, under calorimeter; remove burner lid and light immediately with a match. Withdraw match immediately as the heat of the wood combusting could effect the temperature of the water in the calorimeter. Begin timer immediately when wick is lit. Do not remove lid before match is lit as some alcohol may evaporate and alter the burners weight before it is lit. Plunge stirrer up and down once every 5 seconds to ensure uniform heating. During heating keep lid on calorimeter to prevent the water evaporating and heat loss.Ã Record waters temperature every 30 seconds by using thermometer at eye-level. Do not remove thermometer from water to take reading, as this will change its temperature.Ã After 150 seconds of heating extinguish flame by replacing burners lid. Record the waters final temperature in i C.Ã Re-weigh burner and record mass in grams to the nearest hundredth.Ã Repeat 3 times and take an average of results. Repeat for all four alcohols. Calculate energy released by each alcohol per gram using the formula below: Energy Released per gram= C x Mw x /\T (J/g) Mf Where, C= specific heat capacity of water (4. 17 J/gi C) Mw=mass of water (g) /\T=change in temperature (i C) Mf=Mass of fuel used (g) Calculate energy released per mol using average J/g and the following formula: Energy released per mol= Mr x J/g (J/mol) Where, Mr=molecular mass J/g=Energy released per gram (average) Safety Precautions Because this investigation involves the use of open flamed burners, I will need to be very careful in the laboratory. I will remove all loose pieces of clothing that may fall into flame and set light. I will wear safety goggles to protect my eyes as I am heating a liquid, which could spit, into my eyes when hot.Ã I will use a heat-proof mat to protect the workbench from the heat of the burner.Ã I will abide by all standard laboratory rules such as: Do not run. Results PTO CONCLUSION The graph shows that as the length of the molecule chain in an alcohol increases so to does the amount of energy it gives of when completely combusted. The curved line of best fit shows that the relationship is not proportional. The energy released increases because as the length of molecule chain increases because the larger chains only need a small input of energy to break the original bonds yet gives out a larger amount of energy when the new bonds are formed. The energy of the products is lower compared to that of the reactants in longer chain molecules than smaller ones. The results support my prediction in the way that I predicted that as the length of the chain increased so to would the energy released. However, I also predicted that the graph would show directly proportional results, which it does not. My prediction also stated that the results would be lower than the theoretical values due to heat loss which proved to be correct. EVALUATION I believe the method I used was as accurate as possible with the equipment provided, although the results do not show this. The energy released per mol values are a lot lower than the theoretical values due to heat loss. Because of the large amount of heat loss the results are quite varied and unreliable. I only encountered one anomalous result, which is highlighted in red on the results table. I believe this is because of less heat being lost during this test than the was lost during the other tests for propan-1-ol. To overcome this problem barrier could be placed around the burner to shield it from drafts and guide the heat towards the calorimeter. I believe that the results show a curve because more heat was lost for the small-chained molecules due to the lower temperatures of flame being blown away more easily than those flames with higher temperatures.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Sample Outline for Case Study Essay I. Introduction: Overview of the type of substance abuse issue you are focusing upon, its impact (on society and this agency) and your interest in this agency. (Tip: Open with something shocking or startling which will grab your readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Look at some of the articles you have read to get ideas.) II. Agency A. The agency/program you choose to examine and why B. History of the agency/program C. Current data on agency/program: size, number of personnel, service area, mission, etc D. Who you spoke to in the agency/program E. Conclusion you came to after conducting your initial interviews 1. What is the challenge this agency faces in regard to substance abuse? III. Issue you discovered A. Thought provoking discussion of the issue and what problems it causes 1. Challenges for society in general 2. Challenges for the agency/program 3. Challenges for those in the agency/program 4. Possible solutions or ways to address this problem that occurred to you before doing the research IV. Your research A. Articles you examined which relate to this issue B. Findings of those articles C. How you feel these findings relate to your agency/program and their challenges D. Follow-up interview 1. What did your interviewee say about your findings? 2. How might your findings relate to this agency? E. Thoughtful discussion of your conclusion(s) about how this issue should be handled, based upon your findings and your follow-up interview F. Wrap this part of your paper up in a compelling manner Ã¢â¬â perhaps refer back to the Ã¢â¬Å"shockingÃ¢â¬ part of your introduction Your assessment of this case study A. The procedures Ã¢â¬â what worked, what didnÃ¢â¬â¢t? What you learned How this assignment has impacted your career goals Reminders: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Be sure you establish credibility of your interviewee and authors of scholarly articles you cite in your paper! Ã¢â¬ ¢ Be sure you cite and discuss a minimum of two scholarly articles in this paper Ã¢â¬â you may use other sources, but must use at least two scholarly references!
Effects Autism Has On Communication Psychology Essay This research report is about Autism and the effects it has in Communication. This disorder has always been interesting to me. Autism is a developmental disorder that affects 1 in every 150 children. There are several different types of Autism but the most commonly known are Asperger Syndrome and general Autism. Asperger Syndrome is when children have problems communicating and interacting with others but have good communication skills. They can also be sensative to loud sounds, bright lights and tastes. Children with Aspergers have an obsession with one thing or any subject that they find appealing. Classical Autism is the most common of the disorders. Autism symptoms include problems with social interaction, repeating actions and phrases and difficulty with communicating in general. Autistic children become obsessed with certain subjects but lack interest in other areas. These children are known for being socially withdrawn, little emotion, and isolated. I want to know how does Com munication affect autistic people in everyday life? I recently watched a documentary on Autism, where a normal guy lived with a twenty year old Autistic boy. He wanted to put himself into an Autistic childs lifestyle and see how the most simple tasks can be some of the hardest things to do for someone who has Autism. I am interested in finding out if the things that set them off can be monitored, will it eventually stop being a problem in their lives. Autistic kids spend everyday of their lives fighting their inner thoughts and when speaking out loud. Autism has so many unanswered questions. I want to do more research and find out testimonies from people with Autism and their struggles with Communication. Autism is something I am sure everyone has been in contact with and you have not even realized it. I think by more people learning about this disorder maybe it can be improved somehow. I feel like this is a disorder that can be managed and one day the children diagnosed with it cou ld be more comfortable with themselves and the way they communicate with others. Anderson A., Litras S., Moore D.W. (2010). Using Video Self-Modelled Social Stories to Teach Social Skills to a Young Child with Autism, Autism Research and Treatment, Vol. 2010, 9 pages. This research report is the study of how video modelling and social studies effect a three year old child with Autism. In this report the researchers point out that social intervention has a crucial effect at an early age if signs of Autism are caught early. It is pointed out that if these behavoirs are caught it will be beneficial later on in life. Social Stories are used to show children with autism how to manage their behavior during social situations by describing where the activity is likely to take place, when and how it will occur, and responses the target child could display. There has also been interest in the use of video modelling, in the treatment of children with autism. Video technology appears well suited to children and fitting to the needs of children with autism. Video modelling involves a child watching specifically made video tapes of him or herself, peers or adults engaging in a behavior being taught. The effectiveness of video modelling for children with autism has been demonstrated for conversational speech, social initiations, and play-behaviors. This report will be useful to my research because it provides actual studies on children and their social behaviors. It is important in my research to have testamonies of actual field research. Bock, G., Goode, J. (2003). Autism: Neural basis and treatment possibilities. Novartis Foundation symposium, 251. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. There have been many advances in research into the nature of autism and our concepts of autism have undergone a radical change.The view was that autism was an early stage of schizophrenia that had been caused by so-called refrigerator parenting. It became clear that it was a mistaken concept and that autism constitutes a neurodevelopmental disorder with a distinctive pattern of cognitive defects and that it is strongly genetically influenced. The point is to tackle the challenges from a range of different perspectives in the hope that a coming together of minds, and of different research strategies, may move research forward. The huge rise in diagnosed autism is a consequence of a major broadening of the concept of autism .The rise is unlikely to have been genetically determined? There have been claims that the rise is due to the use of the combined measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine but that does not seem very likely. The rise began before the introduction of MMR and it continued to rise, without any plateauing, after MMR was used with the vast majority of the population. The prevailing consensus at the moment is that autism spectrum disorders constitute a continuum extending from mild autism to severe handicap.Why is it that individuals with the broader phenotype do not have associated mental retardation and do not seem to have an increase in the rate of epilepsy, both being very characteristic correlates of autism? Th is critical essay is reporting on how people used to think Autism was not a social disorder but cause by certain diseases. I like this article because it shows how far research has come in this field and there are more humane thoughts about Autism. Luiselli, J. K. (2008). Effective practices for children with autism: Educational and behavioral support interventions that work. New York: Oxford University Press. Children who have autism require educational and treatment services. There are a many approaches currently recommended to practitioners and parents, but little is known about their efficacy. Which are the most effective in teaching skills, overcoming behavior challenges, and improving quality of life? Methods must be based in research settings, but be easily extended to real world settings where children with autism live, go to school and socialize.Identifying and validating effective practices is a difficult process, but an important one for responsible research and practice. This critical essay brings together many views on interventions for autism education and behavior. With contributors from a variety of disciplines and orientations, Effective Practices for Children with Autism presents a critical view of current practice standards, emphasizing procedures and research-to-practice applications. This book was intended for researchers and doctors in this field, the book is for eval uating educational and treatment procedures, which acknowledge the most effective ways of going about treatments of Autism. Hacking I. (2010). Autism fiction: A mirror of an internet decade. University of Toronto Quarterly 79(2), 632-655. Retrieved August 18, 2010, from Project MUSE database. In the past ten years there has been an explosion of literature fiction and non-fiction, in which autism plays a key role. This critical essay explores the diverse genre that has resulted and examines some of its effects on the evolution of our understanding of autism and on our ability to talk about autistic experience. The role of the Internet in enabling autistic people to interact with others while avoiding the difficulties of face-to-face interaction. It proposes that the public fascination with autistic texts mirrors the dominance of the Internet in daily life. Both texts and the Internet represent changes in communication. Rogers, S. J. Interventions That Facilitate Socialization in Children with Autism Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2000-10-01Springer Netherlands 0162-3257 Behavioral Science 399, 409, 30, 5. Being socially handicap is one of the most defining and handicapping features of Autism. One of the most important parts in Autism research is improving social function. Many social experiments have been published in autism literature. Children with autism are responsive to a variety of interventions aimed at increasing their social engagement with others. Successful strategies such as peer tutoring have involved autistic children. Several studies have demonstrated that social engagement directly affects other important behaviors like language, even when these behaviors are not specifically targeted by the teaching program. While an area of severe involvement, social behavior is also responsive to intervention. I believe this critical essay is an important part of my research because it gives the background of Autism and extensive information on what measures need to be taken to improve the social behaviors of Autistic children. Sansosti F.J. and Powell-Smith K. A. (2008). Using computer-presented social stories and video models to increase the social communication skills of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 162-178. This research report on three children with High-Functioning Autism and Aspergers Syndrome, they are the subjects of a two week research study that was done by video modelling. The data was collected twice a week through daily tasks that are not monitored. One of the main events monitored was recess. The research in this report showed that with using video modelling and social stories is helpful for children with Autism and Aspergers Syndrome. This report is helpful to my research because it shows a daily plan of how the research was done and how effective it can be if done routinely. Shute, N. (2010). Desperate for an Autism Cure. Scientific American, 303(4), 80-85. Retrieved from Nursing Allied Health Collection: Comprehensive database. The research report discusses the reliance on risky alternative therapies by parents of autistic children as valid treatments become rarer. According to the report the percentage of autistic children in the U.S. that are receiving alternative treatments is high. The author argues that many of the non-conventional therapies are unreal and that some practitioners are prescribing drugs that have never been tested for safety or efficacy in the treatment of autism. Points include how increased public awareness and the demand by parents for proven treatments have resulted in increased research funding for autism Stacey, P. (2003). The boy who loved windows: Opening the heart and mind of a child threatened with autism. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. This book is a personal memoir that is written first hand about a boy with Autism. It begins with the diagnosis, through a five-year span through alternative medicine, brain research, and the work of pioneering psychiatrist Stanley Greenspan who helped bring their son into full contact with the world. In 1997 Patricia Stacey and her husband Cliff learned that their six-month-old son might never walk or talk, or even hear or see. Shocked with his prognosis they can not live with this prediction, they start on a five-year escapade that took them into the world of Autism. Their search led them to pioneering developmental psychiatrist Stanley Greenspan who helped them save their son and bring him into full contact with the world. This memoir is hopeful and gives people an insight on the way of life in a childs world with Autism. In some ways you make yourself apart of their lives instead of them living in the real world. This critical essay explores all of the ups and downs of this famil ies struggle with this social disorder. The Boy Who Loved Windows is inspiring reading for parents and professionals who care for children with autism.Ã
Friday, September 20, 2019
Negative Impacts of Donald Trumps Wall The Negative Repercussions of a Ã¢â¬Å"YugeÃ¢â¬ Wall in America: U.S-Mexico Border Increasing border security has been an ongoing discussion in the United States for many decades, particularly in recent months since the 2016 election year. The elected president, Donald Trump, used this matter to garner supporters during his campaigning, and since elected, has still been a proponent with constructing a border wall between Mexico and the U.S. There is a notion from this perspective that with a higher and stronger border, undocumented immigration will halt and supposedly will allow America to be Ã¢â¬Å"great againÃ¢â¬ . The president elect initially sought for the funding of the wall to come from Mexico, nevertheless, that funding has now shifted to the U.S. Congress paying for it and claiming that Mexico in some form or another will reimburse the costs of the construction. Increasing border security through this Ã¢â¬Å"wallÃ¢â¬ however, will bring even greater conflicting issues such as environmental damage, increase the dangers of the lives of immigrants when a ttempting to cross, and unreasonable costs to create and sustain this wall.Ã The effects will negatively impact this nationÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation, building this wall is the wrong thing to do even though the Ã¢â¬Å"American thing to doÃ¢â¬ has been to increase border security. A group of people say a prayer, in Holtville, Ca. in a cemetery filled with unmarked graves of migrants who died in the desert trying to cross into the United States from Mexico.Ã (Photo Credit: ALEX PANETTA / THE CANADIAN PRESS) https://www.thestar.com/news/world/2016/08/28/donald-trumps-immigration-talk-faces-difficult-realities-at-mexican-border.html. Securing the Unites States border between Mexico has been a developing matter through history since the Treaty of Guadalupe was signed in 1848 that allowed the acquisition of new territory and the Rio Bravo becoming the political border line between these two countries. Movement through this border has always been present, shifting in its increase due to economic hardships whether in Mexico or United States such as the bracero program where the U.S. requested help from Mexican farmers to work their lands due to shortage of labor because of their involvement in World War II . However, Mexican immigration did not end once the war was done. President Eisenhower administration executed the Operation Wetback, Ã¢â¬Å"a governmental campaign that forcibly repatriated 1 to 2 million Mexicans [whether undocumented or not]Ã¢â¬ . Despite the force, immigration from Mexico and Central America has yet continued. Before the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, immigration crossings in the U.S Ã¢â¬â Mexico border had waves coming in through urban crossing points such as El Paso Ã¢â¬â Ciudad Juarez, San Diego Ã¢â¬â Tijuana, McAllen Ã¢â¬â Reynosa, etc. Nonetheless, the United States government implemented fence-buildings, closing off these urban crossings points, influencing a change of routes into dangerous points such as ArizonaÃ¢â¬â¢s desert. With putting up barriers at these points, Ã¢â¬Å"deaths in the border region have increased nearly 150% as migrants enter through more remote and rugged terrainÃ¢â¬ in the last decade and half . Dead bodies of unknown immigrants have been found throughout these harsh geographic areas. As depicted in the picture, these graves show the sacrifice these immigrants will put their lives in. The construction of this proposed wall, will unquestionably further the risks that immigrants will challenge when trying to cross to the United States, still placing themselves through deserts, underground tunnels, and even sea. These environmental situations have been counterproductive to the Ã¢â¬Å"securingÃ¢â¬ , alternatively, creating inhumane barriers for immigrants whose goal is to have a better life on the other side of the border. The proposed wall not only will create needless dangers to humans crossing attempts, but an environmental effect for the flora and fauna found and living in this region. Ã Wildlife had not been thought through when these fences were implemented having to only take account humans as the focus for these constructions, being Ã¢â¬Å"motivated by security concerns that are considered paramount over most other considerationsÃ¢â¬ . Since the border fences and security of the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, immigration crossings did not decrease but rather shifted from urban areas to the remote areas where the ecology is most concentrated. Research has shown that the fence border that is suited between Mexico and the United States has indeed Ã¢â¬Å"disrupted movements and distribution of [for instance], animals such as the ferruginous pygmy owl and bighorn sheep and could isolate small populations of large mammals in Arizona, including black bears and pumasÃ¢â¬ . By building the wall, it will disrupt evermore the ecology, inhibiting wildlife to move naturally within its natural habitat. Environmental activists and communities have been vocal over the repercussions that the wall will bring to the environment and the dangers that the threatened and endangered species will have to face from this development. Species such as the ocelot and jaguarondi (wild cats) that Ã¢â¬Å"are tropical species at the northern limit of their natural habitat range, the barrier would Ã¢â¬ ¦certainly expedite the disappearance of these species from the U.S.Ã¢â¬ . However, the Trump administration has ignored these environmental consequences in recent news. Even so this avoidance has been seen during the early 2000Ã¢â¬â¢s, where Ã¢â¬Å"federal legislation adopted [to sideline] all environmental laws such as the Endangered Species ActÃ¢â¬ for the sake of not disrupting the Ã¢â¬Å"construction of the barriersÃ¢â¬ . Protecting the environment and preserving species in their natural habitats allows for the ecosystem to flow accordingly, if disrupted, humans will be effected since theyÃ¢â¬â¢re dependent as well to these natural habitats. It would be selfish and vicious for humans who coexist with these variety of species to construct an artificial border that will knowingly harm them. Ã Photo of alleged smuggler transporting a Central American family to along the border near Mission, Texas in July 2014, Photo Credit by: John Moore/Getty Images http://latinousa.org/2014/09/12/smugglers/. The wall project that will stretch 2,000 miles will evidently create more damage but as well be costly and ineffective. $21.6 billion has been a recent cost projection for the construction, with perhaps putting the United States into more debt. This billion-dollar wall will not stop undocumented immigration since those who enter the United States come in with visa and outstay their visit, [outnumbering] those who cross the border without permission. This gives an example of the forthcoming ineffectiveness of this wall that these billions of dollars will go into when comparing it to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s border fence that hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily stopped undocumented immigrants from coming from the south of the border. Another matter as well, as Josiah McC Heyman explains in their journal, Ã¢â¬Å"human smugglers have apparently kept ahead of the government, despite the post-1993 tactical shifts, added technology, and the buildup of forcesÃ¢â¬ . Such as the picture above, t hese human smugglers or coyotes as they have been named as, have found ways in the last two decades with smuggling unauthorized immigrants into the United States, despite the increase of money and labor that has been put for the Ã¢â¬Å"securingÃ¢â¬ of the U.S. Ã¢â¬â Mexico border since its construction in 1993. Immigrant individuals or families will give thousands of dollars to these coyotes to sneak them across the border, putting their lives into these individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ hands for a better life than the one they had in their home country. Ã In addition, patrolling the extent of this 2,000-mile border wall will need additional border patrol agents. The Trump Administration is considering hiring another 5,000 agents, significantly increasing their budget to hire, train and maintain these agents, with an estimate of $328 million for 2017 and 1.884 billion dollars for the year of 2018. Hiring these much personnel will not come easy, these patrol agent applicants must go through extensive training and tough exams where hiring them can take about seven months. With shortening and easing the processes, however, could do more harm than good since they will not have the adequate training to patrol rough and dangerous terrain. Thus, building this wall as Trump has been consistently vocal about doing will only bring predicaments to the United States economic condition, since this proposed funding will not bring much triumph with stopping undocumented immigrants from coming into the country. With this wall, it would only reflect irrational money waste to the eyes of the national and international public, disregarding other departments such as education and health that would most benefit and outweigh the 20-billion-dollar funding for the greater future of the country. Most undocumented immigrants who are coming from Mexico, Central America and other South American countries are trying to flee either poverty or violence or even both. It is human nature for people to want to push forward with their lives to seek a better future for themselves and/or families even if it means putting their lives at risk for days in the harsh terrain that this border is located at. Building this massive wall will not stop immigrants from trying to go over, under, or around it, but rather do more harm to the environment, economy and people. The Ã¢â¬Å"American Thing DoÃ¢â¬ has been to spend billions of dollars to not necessarily Ã¢â¬Å"secureÃ¢â¬ our border, but rather to stop people from seeking the American Dream. This nation has been built by immigrants and no shape and form will people stop immigrating to this melting pot of a nation. It is in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s interests to change its perspective on immigration, a comprehensive immigration reform and assist ance to these underdeveloped countries would do more justice for its self and other countries. Bibliography Ã¢â¬Å"Coyotes: Ten Things to About Smugglers.Ã¢â¬ September 12, 2014. http://latinousa.org/2014/09/12/smugglers/. Cohen, Deborah. Braceros: migrant citizens and transnational subjects in the postwar United States and Mexico. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina., 2011. Dear, Michael J. Why Walls WonÃ¢â¬â¢t Work: Repairing the US-Mexico Divide. New York: Oxford University Press., 2013. Donald TrumpÃ¢â¬â¢s immigration talk faces difficult realities at Mexican border.Ã¢â¬ August 28, 2016. https://www.thestar.com/news/world/2016/08/28/donald-trumps-immigration-talk-faces-difficult-realities-at-mexican-border.html. Eriksson, Lindsay, and Melinda Taylor. Ã¢â¬Å"Impacts of the Border Wall Between Texas and Mexico.Ã¢â¬ TW Wall, Obstructing Human Rights: The Texas-Mexico Border Wall, (2008): 1-10. https://law.utexas.edu/humanrights/borderwall/analysis/briefing-The-Environmental-Impacts-of-the-Border-Wall.pdf. Gaskill, Melissa. Ã¢â¬Å"The Environment Impact of the U.S.-Mexico Border Wall: In the Rio Grande Valley, the barrier erected to keep out illegal immigrants is imperiling rare and endangered animal species.Ã¢â¬ Newsweek 166, no. 8 (February 26, 2016): 54-56. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, EBSCOhost. http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.libproxy.txstate.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=1&sid=e9e51cd2e42c448e88d8cc5ac3624520%40sessionmgr4006&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=edsgcl.443631894&db=edsgov. Gulasekaram, Pratheepan. Ã¢â¬Å"Why a Wall?.Ã¢â¬ UC Irvine L. Rev 2, no. 1(February 2012): 147-192. http://scholarship.law.uci.edu/ucilr/vol2/iss1/6/. Heyman, Josiah McC. Ã¢â¬Å"Constructing a Virtual Wall: Race and Citizenship in U.S.-Mexico Border Policing.Ã¢â¬ Journal of the Southwest 50, no. 3 (2008): 305-334. JSTOR Journals, EBSCOhost. http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.txstate.edu/stable/pdf/40170393.pdf?refreqid=excelsior:03dcbf2cfb793281ef5abf676db8e150. Hong, Kari. Ã¢â¬Å"The Costs of Trumped-Up Immigration Enforcement Measures.Ã¢â¬ Cardoza Law Review De Novo 2017, no. 119 (January 2017): 121-154. LexisNexis Academic: Law Reviews, EBSCOhost.Ã http://www.lexisnexis.com.libproxy.txstate.edu/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb=sr&csi=270077&sr=cite%282017%20Cardozo%20L.%20Rev.%20De%20Novo%20119%29. Hudak, John J., E. Kamarck, and C. Steinglein. Ã¢â¬Å"Hitting the wall: On immigration, campaign promises clash with policy realities.Ã¢â¬ Brookings (2017): 1-18. https://www.brookings.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2017/06/gs_06222017_dhs_immigration.pdf. Trouwborst, A., F. Fleurke, and J. Dubrulle. Ã¢â¬Å"Border Fences and their Impacts on Large Carnivores, Large Herbivores and Biodiversity: An International Wildlife Law Perspective.Ã¢â¬ Review of European, Comparative and International Environmental Law 25, no. 3 (November 1, 2016): 291-306. ScopusÃ ®, EBSCOhost. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.libproxy.txstate.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=5&sid=a2835830314f4f338fb9f1660a8db1ff%40sessionmgr103&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=edselc.2-52.0-84994893895&db=edselc.Ã Warren, Robert, and Donald Kerwin. Ã¢â¬Å"The 2,000 Mile Wall in Search of a Purpose: Since 2007 Visa Overstays Have Outnumbered Undocumented Border Crossers by a half a Million.Ã¢â¬ Journal on Migration & Human Security 5, no. 1 (January 2017): 124-136. International Security and Counter Terrorism Reference Center, EBSCOhost. http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.libproxy.txstate.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=4sid=85afe9ae40a84fbbb240e5d3e1b4af09%40sessionmgr4006bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=tshAN=125223798.  Deborah Cohen, Braceros: migrant citizens and transnational subjects in the postwar United States and Mexico (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press., 2011): 1  Ibid., 42.  Michael J Dear, Why Walls WonÃ¢â¬â¢t Work: Repairing the US-Mexico Divide (New York: Oxford University Press., 2013), 73.  Pratheepan Gulasekaram, Ã¢â¬Å"Why a Wall?,Ã¢â¬ UC Irvine L. Rev 2, no. 1(February 2012): 155, http://scholarship.law.uci.edu/ucilr/vol2/iss1/6/.  Ã¢â¬Å"Donald TrumpÃ¢â¬â¢s immigration talk faces difficult realities at Mexican border,Ã¢â¬ August. 28, 2016, https://www.thestar.com/news/world/2016/08/28/donald-trumps-immigration-talk-faces-difficult-realities-at-mexican-border.html.  Arie Truwborst, Floor Fleurke and Jennifer Dubrulle, Ã¢â¬Å"Border Fences and their Impacts on Large Carnivores, Large Herbivores and Biodiversity: An International Wildlife Law Perspective,Ã¢â¬ Review of European, Comparative And International Environmental Law 25, no. 3 (November 1, 2016): 292, ScopusÃ ®, EBSCOhost, http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.libproxy.txstate.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=5&sid=a2835830-314f-4f33-8fb9-f1660a8db1ff%40sessionmgr103&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=edselc.2-52.0-84994893895&db=edselc.Ã  Lindsay Eriksson and Melinda Taylor, Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental Impacts of the Border Wall Between Texas and Mexico,Ã¢â¬ TW Wall, Obstructing Human Rights: The Texas-Mexico Border Wall, (2008): 8, https://law.utexas.edu/humanrights/borderwall/analysis/briefing-The-Environmental-Impacts-of-the-Border-Wall.pdf.  Melissa Gaskill, Ã¢â¬Å"The Environment Impact of the U.S.-Mexico Border Wall: In the Rio Grande Valley, the barrier erected to keep out illegal immigrants is imperiling rare and endangered animal species,Ã¢â¬ Newsweek 166, no. 8 (February 26 2016): 55, Opposing Viewpoints in Context, EBSCOhost, http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.libproxy.txstate.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=1&sid=e9e51cd2-e42c-448e-88d8-cc5ac3624520%40sessionmgr4006&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=edsgcl.443631894&db=edsgov.  Ibid., 55.  Eriksson and Taylor, Ã¢â¬Å"The Environmental Impacts,Ã¢â¬ 6.  Truwborst, Fleurke and Dubrulle, Ã¢â¬Å"Border Fences and their Impacts,Ã¢â¬ 292.  Robert Warren and Donald Kerwin, Ã¢â¬Å"The 2,000 Mile Wall in Search of a Purpose: Since 2007 Visa Overstays Have Outnumbered Undocumented Border Crossers by a half a Million,Ã¢â¬ Journal on Migration & Human Security 5, no. 1 (January 2017): 124-126, International Security and Counter Terrorism Reference Center, EBSCOhost, http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.libproxy.txstate.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=4&sid=85afe9ae-40a8-4fbb-b240-e5d3e1b4af09%40sessionmgr4006&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=tsh&AN=125223798.  Ibid., 124.  Kari Hong, Ã¢â¬Å"The Costs of Trumped-Up Immigration Enforcement Measures,Ã¢â¬ Cardoza Law Review De Novo 2017, no. 119 (January 2017): 140, LexisNexis Academic: Law Reviews, EBSCOhost, http://www.lexisnexis.com.libproxy.txstate.edu/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb=sr&csi=270077&sr=cite%282017%20Cardozo%20L.%20Rev.%20De%20Novo%20119%29.  Josiah McC. Heyman, Ã¢â¬Å"Constructing a Virtual Wall: Race and Citizenship in U.S.-Mexico Border Policing,Ã¢â¬ Journal of the Southwest 50, no. 3 (2008): 316, JSTOR Journals, EBSCOhost, http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.txstate.edu/stable/pdf/40170393.pdf?refreqid=excelsior:03dcbf2cfb793281ef5abf676db8e150.  Ã¢â¬Å"Coyotes: Ten Things to About Smugglers,Ã¢â¬ September 12, 2014, http://latinousa.org/2014/09/12/smugglers/.  John J. Hudak, Elaine C. Kamarck, and Christian, Stenglein, Ã¢â¬Å"Hitting the wall: On immigration, campaign promises clash with policy realities,Ã¢â¬ Brookings (2017): 8-9, https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/gs_06222017_dhs_immigration.pdf.  Ibid., 8.
The Influence of an Interior Space on the Human Psyche Introduction: In the research document below research will be done on how designers are influenced by Biophilic interior design concepts, the influence interior designers have on relevant target markets and ones need for particular interior design influences in order to reach self-actualisation, furthermore research will be done on the concept of Rene DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"I think therefore I amÃ¢â¬ theory but applied to the interior design world of Ã¢â¬Å"I design therefore I amÃ¢â¬ . In conclusion the author will summarise the influences interior design has on the human psyche and the benefits one can obtain from interior design. The aim and objectives of this research paper is to establish that all interior spaces which surrounds us as individuals are designed with a particular purpose in mind, whether it be mechanical, functional, practical or purely aesthetic and that it does have an effect on us not only physically and emotionally but also mentally. Some interior designers cater for the niche target with the goal in mind to satisfy qualitative needs, such as custom designs that are designed to order and produced exclusively for that particular clientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs of owning an exclusively designed custom interior space, generally relating to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s social status. The niche target market is the top one percent of the economies income bracket, in other words the wealthiest individuals within the particular economy. The average income target market, is the market where designers aim to satisfy the quantitative needs of the target market, designs are generally less exclusive and produced in bulk so tha t they are accessible by a larger demographic, thus designs are rendered as more affordable. Interior Design can improve oneÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of life as it is Ã¢â¬ the environment around us affecting our mood, productivity, energy levels, aptitude and attitudeÃ¢â¬ . Creating a beautiful interior is about creating a space where you feel relaxed, comfortable, organized and at peace, the idea of the space is to be thought of as therapeutic.Ã¢â¬ (Jess Douray, 2014). Well known sociologist Jean Baudrillard reasons that all objects chosen to fill an interior space is subconsciously placed within the space to tell a story as they are the manifestation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s character and desires. He suggests that us as individuals unconsciously judge interiors on four separate value criteriaÃ¢â¬â¢s, in addition to how the rooms look at face value. He further explains the questions of each value criteria as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"Function: Will this item fit your needs? Is the kitchen table big enough to seat your whole family? Will this flooring cover the entire area of the room? Exchange: Is this item worth the price? Would you rather have this singular high-end couch for R15, 000 or a whole bedroom suite for the same price? Symbolic: Does this item have an emotional attachment? Did you choose a collection of family photos for your dÃ ©cor or a print of a painting? Sign: Does this item have a particular status symbol? Is it a name brand or a generic?Ã¢â¬ (Jean Baudrillard, 2007). Interior design is about much more than designing for aesthetic appearance. It has to consider communication and the key user experience: how spaces work; how they deliver a message and how individuals respond to this when conducting their daily lives; and even how people move around space and interact with objects or people. When within popular design culture, people consider the look of architecture; the true meaning of spaces and places is developed by interior specialists. These are people with the ability to combine engineering, construction, art and psychology in creating spaces; they must consider the basic provision of spatial design. Interior design requires knowledge of appropriate building regulations, health and safety legislation, project planning and technical specifications, all applied in a creative fashion to generate an environment, all of the above needs to be taken into consideration when creating successful designs. PROJECT BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION The authors ultimate goal of the below research document is to establish the value of interior designers and the impact they make in the environments we as individuals reside in. AIM AND OBJECTIVES The aim of the following research paper is to establish the influence of an interior space on the human psyche, the importance of interior designers, the processes of interior design and the outcomes of a well-designed interior. STUDY DEFINED This research document will be based on research done digitally, journals, published articles and books, encapsulating relevant information to that of the topic illustrated above, examples will be provided substantiating statement given along with illustrations and appendices. RESEARCH STATEMENT The importance of interior design and the effect it has on the human psyche along with how interior design influences an individual to the point of reaching self-actualisation. RESEARCH SCOPE, LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS Interior design has been around for centuries and has played a vital role in displaying social status, a sense of comfort and a individuals identity, it is however evident in research done thus far that the importance interior design has on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mental well-being and vitality, has not been defined in great detail. A general lack of information on the benefits interior design possesses and the impact it has in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s daily lives has become apparent. DESIGN SCOPE, LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS The author has found within the research done that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s surrounding interior does not only affect their productivity and mood but their thinking processes and even their physical well-being and health. The lighter and more open the space, the more easily one can become focused, the darker more congested the space the more one can feel overwhelmed or even trapped. Ã¢â¬Å"Biophilic design can reduce stress, enhance creativity and clarity of thought, improve our well-being and promote healing; as the world population continues to urbanize, these qualities are ever more important. Theorists, research scientists, and design practitioners have been working for decades to define aspects of nature that most impact our satisfaction with the built environmentÃ¢â¬ The (Terrapin bright green, 2014). The study of biophilic design will be further explored throughout the research paper. DEFINITION OF TERMS Interior design- the art or job of planning how the rooms of a building should be furnished and decorated Biophilic Design- is an innovative way of designing the places where we live, work, and learn. We need nature in a deep and fundamental fashion, but we have often designed our cities and suburbs in ways that both degrade the environment and alienate us from nature. BIBLIOGRAPHY Dictionary. 2015. Interior design Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/interior%20design. [Accessed 19 March 2015]. 2015. An interior designer has a direct influence on the places and spaces we occupy Magazines Student The Independent . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/student/magazines/an-interior-designer-has-a-direct-influence-on-the-places-and-spaces-we-occupy-760044.html. [Accessed 19 March 2015]. 2015. what is biophilic design? Google Search. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.google.co.za/search?q=what+is+biophilic+design%3Fie=utf-8oe=utf-8aq=trls=org.mozilla:en-US:unofficialclient=firefoxchannel=ntsgfe_rd=crei=BPEKVeS8BIiP7AbIq4G4BA#rls=org.mozilla:en-US:unofficialchannel=ntsq=biophilic+design. [Accessed 19 March 2015]. 2015. Interior design Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/interior%20design. [Accessed 19 March 2015]. APPENDIX Chapter 1: Literature review Chapter 2: Research theory Chapter 3: Findings supported by relevant research Chapter 4: Designs conceptual development CONCLUSION