Friday, January 31, 2020
Annotated Bibliography Essay In this assessment I shall describe an Annotated Bibliography on Autistic Spectrum Disorder. The important factors of inclusion in educational settings will be discussed and how parents as partners can help childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Autism is a condition which affects childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development their whole life. Autism is a brain disorder that is diagnosed normally in early childhood and autistic children can show bad behaviour and can become fairly aggressive and temperamental. Many education settings have provided additional support to young children alongside other children, however this is to include an inclusive practice. Children with autism have many difficulties in three main areas: 1) Social Awareness Find making friends and interacting with others very difficult, and do not always make eye contact when someone is talking to them. 2) Language Communication Find it hard to explain how their feeling and what their thinking and they also communicate in high pitch tones and have severe delay in speech. 3) Imagination Ã¢â¬â Do not always understand that others have thoughts and feelings and have limited imagination. Reid (2005, p.29) quotes Ã¢â¬Å"There may also be evidence of obsessive and inappropriate behaviours. Some students within this spectrum may also have limited imaginative thoughtÃ¢â¬ . In society before, children with autism were misunderstood and their negative behaviour was labelled and because of their negative behaviour children were punished frequently. During that time there was no guidance and support available for children with autism from the government and local authorities. There was none specialised equipment/resources for children to learn and develop further, which would help with this particular disability. There are many barriers for children with autism in mainstream schools like adapting activities, schools may not have enough space and specialised equipment for making the activity adaptable. Children may have certain needs to be tended to so staff need to be trained to deal with children with autism, so some staff would need further training. However, another barrier could be that the parents do not admit that their child has autism, so parents do not attend meetings with staff and acquire the right guidance and support. Some parents may feel that their child is not normal, as the community they come from might have an ideal image of a family, for instance referring to a child who has perfect physical appearance. The medical model sees society or a practice to cure a disability to fit into society, and the social model sees that the child is not the problem, but the attitudes towards disability is the problem. Adults need to provide children with a safe and enabling environment for them to learn and develop in, so children with autism should be treated equally and fairly, like all children and must feel included in their environment. Meanwhile, when providing activities for children with autism adults must give children time for themselves and let them explore, so they can learn at their own pace. Reid (2005, p. 29) states that Ã¢â¬Å"It is important to allow for opportunities that will enable the student some time on his/her ownÃ¢â¬ . However the adult should also involve other children when doing a specific activity for the child with autism, so the child does not feel alone, even though children with autism prefer to play alone. The adult should support and encourage the child and help them complete the activity, by helping the child using hand in hand contact for example the adult holding the childÃ¢â¬â¢s hand etc. The adultÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to talk to the children slowly and calmly, and use simple words so they understand and an effort should be made towards them so they feel the sense of security. Vygotsky was a theorist and his theory was on the Zone of Potential Development (ZPD), his theory stresses the importance of when a more knowledgeable adult/child helps a less knowledgeable child, so by helping him/her complete the task he/she could not done alone, he called this ZPD. Vygotsky saw that adults need to be involved with children strongly. Lindon (1998, p.66) clearly states Ã¢â¬Å"He saw early language as an important social tool for children which brought them deliberately into contact with othersÃ¢â¬ . Adults should provide children with activities where they can use all their senses like touch, smell, taste, sound and sight, so providing them toys with flashing lights, soft toys and puppets which will show affection etc. Vygotskys theory is seen as a scaffolding process where the child imitates the practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, and is a one to one process centring the child individual needs first. Involving parents in these situations can be very difficult, so it is very important to build a relationship with trust and respect, this will help the parent to feel comfortable. Cheminais (2006, p. 101) quotes that Ã¢â¬Å"Clear communication and mutual respect help to promote positive productive working relationships between the two partnersÃ¢â¬ . In my nursery we have a folder for a child with autism and in that folder we have IEP sheets where we constantly observe and monitor the child. We also give some IEP sheets to the parent as well so they also monitor the child at home, this helps us to see how the child is doing at home and at nursery. We then have meetings with the parents, where we can discuss the childÃ¢â¬â¢s progress, this helps us to see the stage of development. Furthermore these sheets help us to plan and provide for the child further. Communication books can also help as the parent can read them, as this will have the childÃ¢â¬â¢s daily routine written in, so parents will feel reassured that their child is safe. (Johnston and William, 2009, p.399-402) Schools and settings can support children with autism by having SENCOÃ¢â¬â¢s (Special educational needs co-ordinator), so children who need extra support can have one to one attention from one main person. Meanwhile they can provide specialised resources like sensory based toys like flashing light toys. Also having family workers can help children, as they can support and guide parents, by having regular sessions where they can discuss where the child needs help and if necessary involve outside agencies. An inclusive environment for children with autism is essential for children to reach their full potential, as this will build their self esteem and confidence. The environment must be warm and friendly for children and parents, however having posters of children with SEN will help childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s parents see there are many types of SEN children. The room must be facilitated to meet childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs for example tables and chairs must be at the childÃ¢â¬â¢s level and layout of the room must be spacious for wheelchair users, so ramps and stair lifts must be provided. Activities must be adaptable for children with, so they can participate and learn from different experiences, just like all children. Children with autism must be given a range of resources/specialist equipment, therefore this will meet their needs so they are equally included. Resources like flash cards, textured materials, soft toys, flashing lights, also natural resources aswel like plants, must be provided as children with autism respond to sensing materials. In my nursery where I work, there is a child with autism, he likes to line objects horizontally and vertically and when playing he constantly repeats the same pattern. The child repeats the same pattern again and again, he shows some independence and confidence in this situation, and repeats his schema. Piaget was a theorist and his idea of schema was, Lindon (1998, p. 72) says Ã¢â¬Å"Patterns of behaviour that are linked through a theme and from which a child generalises and explores in different situationsÃ¢â¬ . There are many legal requirements that support the actions which need to be taken when a child may have special needs. The Disability Discrimination Act (1995) supports the actions which need to be taken, with children with SEN; this Act says that it would be illegal for settings not to make reasonable adjustments for people who have a disability. A perfect example of effective practice is Terry, J (2009, p.30) says Ã¢â¬Å"Autism is recognised as a disability under the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995 (DCSF, 2009), and some children and young people will have associated or additional complex developmental difficulties that require the high level of co-ordinated support delivered by Early SupportÃ¢â¬ . The Special Education Needs Disability Act (2001) also supports children with SEN. This Act is separated in two sections, part one develops the framework of SEN, to reinforce the rights of parents and their children to enter mainstream education and part two develops the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) to expand the rights of SEN children in schools. The main key points of these Acts are that children with disabilities are treated well, and that they are entitled to study the National Curriculum. In conclusion it is very important for schools and settings to provide a learning and friendly environment for children with autism. Therefore they must provide useful and quality resources and specialised equipment to meet childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s individual needs, so children can reach their utmost best, build their self esteem and confidence and also enjoy themselves. Schools and settings can also work with outside agencies and help to meet parents and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. As a result parents can get advice and support from other professionals and other agencies, on the other hand childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s certain needs can be tend to and learning experiences maximised. All staff must be trained to deal with children with autism so they can observe, plan and provide for children with certain needs which need to be met. So then children can develop their next stage of development, Furthermore parents working with teachers can help childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development enormously as their needs are most likely to be met. As parents are their primary carers, so they know their child/childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s likes, dislikes and interests. Staff can then plan and provide children with challenging activities which children will enjoy and develop further.
Monday, January 27, 2020
Visual Pleasure And Narrative Cinema In this paper we are going to discuss the position of Laura Malvey in her work Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. The psychoanalytic interpretation of the position of women viewers gets back to the famous essay by Laura Mulvey Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, the original thesis of which was that the film form is structured by the unconscious of the patriarchal society and that woman as a spectator is always imposed the rules of a foreign game getting of the male type of pleasure for example, inherently scopophilic pleasure from the examination of the female body. But the issue in this work is not only and not so much about the pleasure itself, but about more serious things how the vision is the instance of identification formation of the subject through the visual practices and how the power is incorporated into the play that is, the question is raised in the work about the ideological effects of the basic cinematic apparatus. Mulvey argued that ideology is involved in forming the subjectivity of the individual at the level of the unconscious and that is how a female spectator, through borrowing the male gaze, takes the ideology of a patriarchal society, which is imposed. Laura Mulvey (1975) in Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema explains how the traditional Hollywood film claims the scopophilic view: In a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been split between active/male and passive/female. The determining male gaze projects its phantasy on to the female form which is styled accordingly. In their traditional exhibitionist role women are simultaneously looked at and displayed, with their appearance coded for strong visual and erotic impact so that they can be said to connote to-be-looked-at-ness. The woman, demonstrated as a sexual object, acts as a leitmotif of erotic spectacle. The formulated problem in this context may be solved through a strong deconstruction of the vision machine, which constitutes a woman as an image, and a man as an owner of the sight. Mulvey proposes to destroy the voayeristic-scopophilic opinion, consistently destroying cinematic codes that postulate such view. Will this be the solution of the problem? Mulveys emphasis on the analysis of the specific of the cinematographic system, with all its radical and provocative judgements, seems to be legitimate. The real is the question of the discursive mediation properties. However, in general, the psychoanalytic criticism of visual representations may also have a profound methodologic effect. As we have alreqady stated, the main ideas of Mulveys research approach are formulated by her in the work Visual pleasure and narrative cinema. The impact of this approach extended not only to the tudy of movies but also to television, advertising and other forms of visual culture. The researcher begins her studies with the basic ideas of psychoanalysis a postulation of sexual differences as the axis of meaning and the center of the oedipal drama. Mulvey (1975) made the psychoanalytic theory as the basis for interpretation of the mystery of movie: The fascination of film is reinforced by pre-existing patterns of fascination already at work within the individual subject and the social formations that have moulded him. According to the researcher, the movie does not only stimulates and trains scopophilic bents (the pleasure of spying), but also satisfies the repressed desire to show off, the exhibitionism. Even so the movie does not only quenche the scopophilic thirst, but also brings it to the narcissism, satisfying the human need of identification with others, in this case with anyone or anything on the screen. On the one hand, the film is designed for the fact that the audience identifies itself with a particular character, his logic, so that for the audience everything could be clear. On the other hand, the viewer tends to present himself in a strange role. Just in time for psychodynamics occurring between these two processes, the phenomenon of narrative cinema, about which Laura Mulvey writes, is built. In this vein, it is appropriate to recall the ideas that the cinema performance actualizes and intensifies the processes of an affective internal projection-identification in the viewer, who has the ability to act and move. At the same time Laura Mulvey is developing a theory of the male look under which a woman appears as an image, and a man as the bearer of the look. That is, according to the researcher, in the movies women simultaneously function as erotic objects for the male audience, that gets a scopophilic pleasure from their presence, and as erotic objects for the male characters , with whom the male audience may identify itself. The third and decisive spectator, in addition to the male protagonist and the male audience, is a camera, which by means of choosing a particular angle, and a sequence of frames represents an opportunity to double the pleasure of scopophilia and identification. The researcher firmly binds the audience view with the function of the cinema in general. Hall (2003) stated that cinema is capable to control our mind, to make us identify with its images. It was originally created for the visual experience and for the viewers empathy. Therefore, the point of the location of view, its place and its direction, according to Mitchell (1995), are incredibly important and determine the film industry as such. Such a perfect ability to focus the mind distinguishes cinema from other shows. Laura Mulvey concludes that the codes involved in the movie and having a direct relation to the external structures (social and economic conditions), must be learnt for their transformation, for creation of other movies and critics of the effects and characteristics of visual pleasure, which is provided by the traditional movie plot. The attempt of L. Mulvey to show using psychoanalytic theory , how unconscious in a patriarchal society forms the film had a very important and significant impact on the further development of the feminist film criticism. Further, the theories of the female look in art are also actively appearing and developing As for the contemporary cultural and feminist theory, its main subject is an everyday life, where there is a specific articulation of social structures. Today there is a fundamental shift in the feminist studies in general. According to Evans and Hall (2005) we see that this is the transition from the deterministic explanations of womens subordination to the media to the analysis of the processes of symbolization and representation. In other words, the problem of studies of mass media moved from the determining of the reasons of situation for womens subordination in culture and society to the review of symbolic aspects of the functioning of cultural products and tools of mass communication in general. The advantage of the research approach Mulvey is that she is one of the first to articulate the existence of a gender specificity of modern movies, to draw attention to the presence of the third spectator which was not previously noticed a camera, on the position of sight of which further specifics of the construction and interaction of the images in the film depends. Her ideas had a strong influence on the avant-garde trend in the cinema. At the same time Mulvey was interested in the universal mechanisms of constructing a plot of the film, as well as the mechanism of influence of specific film image to the audience through the identification process. Laura Mulvey, the author of the article Visual pleasure and narrative cinema, says that in the movie the traditional division of labor is used: a woman serves as a subject for a look, a man serves as an examining person. The camera a cinema eye inherits the role of a man, who looks through the lens of cultural cliches. The product of this view is an active authoritativeness of the erotic gaze directed at the female body, and narrative patterns of the melodramatic cinema. An endless variety of genre roles for the calibration of all the shades of seduction, desire, flirting or classical coldness are available to the actresses. It goes without saying that the text of the work, with todays perspective, seems to be too radical, too provocative, tapering to limit the sex differences, abounding in bold (for the uninitiated in the mysteries of psychoanalysis) terminology and may be somewhat alien to our consciousness, but at the same time this is the most representative and the most authoritative work, which gives quite a clear idea about the specifics of feminist psychoanalytic cinema theory. In addition, this work is an explicit demonstration of how the feminist critique has expropriated and used the psychoanalytic discourse to overcome traditional psychoanalysis negativism against women dating back to Freud, with his own means. In our work we have to give two examples from visual culture and discuss how Mulveys thesis may be convincing in one instance but tested to its limitations in another. For this discussion I propose to take two films: Rare Window by Alfred Hitchcock and Juno by Jason Reitman. The film Rare Window by Alfred Hitchcock is convincing the thesis of Laura Malvey that Man is the bearer of the look while Woman connotes to-be-looked-at-ness. The main character of this film is put in such conditions that he has to be scopophilic. A photographer Jeffries has broken his leg and now he has to watch everything going outside through the window. The film reveals to us one of the main needs of men peep through the keyhole, figuratively speaking. It is really impossible to keep away from such a forbidden fruit. And the blame of everything is curiosity, namely it moves the main mechanisms in a man, allowing to forget about other equally important needs (food, rest, sex) and exciting the imagination at a time. In this film everything is concentrated around the man, Jeffries, women are just a phone here. As to the film that is tested to the limitations of Malveys thesis it should be noticed it is very hard to find such because such films began to appear not so long time ago. These are the films with a strong woman in the main role. For example I would like to propose the film Juno by Jason Reitman. The main heroine of this film is a young girl who is pregnant and who gets perfectly well with her problems. All the actions in the film are concentrated around this young lady Juno and in difference to the films in which everything is made for men, this film limits the thesis of Laura Malvey that Man is the bearer of the look while Woman connotes to-be-looked-at-ness by our vision of the main heroine.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Universally feared, pain and suffering are typically detested and avoided at all costs. Raskolnikov is humanized in Crime and Punishment due to his fear of suffering and avoidance of it. However, due to the social and economic ruin of Russia during the setting of the novel, many characters seek out suffering. Inspired by Christianity and the self-sacrifice of the Savior, people turn to the religion as a security blanket, which adds meaning to their existence. These characters not only welcome suffering, but also search for it and throw themselves into adversity. Ironically for the time period, female characters in the book represent Christian symbols, sacrificing themselves for what they love. RaskolnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s own sister, Dunya, acquires a very Christ-like position due to her extensive self-sacrifice. Having grown up in the same environmental situations as Raskolnikov, there is still a distinctive difference in their personalities. This difference allows Dunya to be adored by those around her as contrasted with Raskolnikov who, when at school, was mentioned to have Ã¢â¬Å"no friendsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"nobody liked himÃ¢â¬ (63). Here RaskolnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s differentiation from society is clearly demonstrated. Dunya takes her role a step further and is described as someone who Ã¢â¬Å"demands to accept torment for someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s sake as quickly as possible.Ã¢â¬ (567). The connotation of the word Ã¢â¬Å"demandsÃ¢â¬ conveys her self-brought on obligation to undergo hardships. The word Ã¢â¬Å"quicklyÃ¢â¬ demonstra tes just how frenzied her need to suffer for others is. An akin female who also craves suffering is Sonya. This is most clearly validated by her occupation as a prostitute. A prostitute typically sacrifices all they physically have for the sake of others. Her life is meager... ...itÃ¢â¬â¢s a real pleasure!Ã¢â¬ (575). This simple delight is SvidrigailovÃ¢â¬â¢s way of enjoying suffering without being harmed himself. Like, Raskolnikov, it stems from his subconciousÃ¢â¬â¢s need to expereicne repercussions. Suffering is highly idealized as a positive situation in St. Petersburg, Russia at this trying time. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov find their positions to be aggravating and painful. Those around them take suffering in strife, and with pride. Yet these two cannot let down their walls and allow the punishment in. As a result, Raskolnikov is suffering greatly from lack of air and falls deeper into delirium. His life function begins to falter. The two men are lost, Raskolnikov in his failed theories and Svidrigailov in the trials of his being. Eventually suffering reaches a point where it must be acted upon for everything to run its natural course.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Fahrenheit 451 Imagine a society where books are prohibited, where the basic rights made clear in the First Amendment hold no weight and society is merely a brainwashed, mechanical population. According to Ray Bradbury, the author of Fahrenheit 451, this depiction is actually an exaggerated forecast for the American future, and in effect is happening around us every day. Simply reading his words can incite arguments pertaining not only to the banning of books but to our government structure itself. Age-old debates about Communism are stirred by the trials of characters in BradburyÃ¢â¬â¢s unique world. By studying the protagonist and main character, Guy Montag, and his personal challenges we can, in a sense, evaluate our own lives to insure that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t make similar mistakes. Fahrenheit 451 was written during the fifties, a period of mass paranoia, war, and technological advancement. The paranoia in the fifties was due the fear of Communism at home. People were afraid that their best friends might be Communists. This is also portrayed in the book; you are not sure until the very end if some of the characters are friend or foe. Many inventions of the fifties have advanced mirrors in the book. One might think that the author was trying to express how those inventions would ultimately resulting in the dumbing down of society. The television was coming about in the fifties and the four screen TV's in the book hampered the thought process so people would not think. While the book is definitely critiquing society and the government, readers are given many dominant themes to follow, and to find all of them requires several readings. The main plot, following Montag, illustrates the importance of making mistakes in order to grow. For example, at the very end of the book Granger (an outspoken rebel to the book-banning laws) compares mankind to a phoenix that burns itself up and then rises out of its ashes over and over again. Man's advantage is his ability to recognize when he has made an error, so that eventually he will learn not to make that mistake anymore. Remembering the faults of the past is the task Granger and his group have set for themselves. They believe that individuals are not as important as the collective mass. The symbol of the phoenix's rebirth refers not only to the cyclical nature of history and the collective rebirth of society but also to Montag's own resurrection as a new person.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Nuclear weapons are a mechanism that can cause explosive reaction. Nuclear weapons commonly have these explosions from nuclear reactions, or fission. Nuclear weapons are a world wide problem, and have impact throughout the world. Nuclear weapons were first introduced into the world in World War II. Many countries own or manufacture nuclear weapons. There have been millions of dollars spent on nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons can create many outcomes They have made many impacts on multiple countries.Most of these impacts seem to be negative. Ireland has many views and ideas for nuclear weapons. Ireland wants to abolish nuclear weapons in total. Ireland believes they are very dangerous. They also think that they threaten the lives of anyone living around a country that has nuclear weapons. The country also have the opinion that nuclear weapons are very unpredictable and can be ignited by an accidental cause. Thus, IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s view on nuclear weapons is a strong one, and they do no t want them by their country.Since Ireland does not produce any nuclear weapons, they believe their surrounding countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ nuclear weapons could harm Ireland. Some countries by Ireland are Northern Ireland, Isle of Man, Wales, Scotland, and England. Northern Ireland has some nuclear weapons. Isle of Man does not have nuclear weapons. Neither does Wales. Wales wants to obtain nuclear weapons. England has not had nuclear weapons since 1991. Since Northern Ireland has some nuclear weapons, Ireland may want to make rules about what nuclear weapons they are allowed to use around the border of Ireland.Ireland may want to do this to protect their country from a nuclear attack. Ireland wants to make laws for other countries about nuclear weapons. Some people believe Ireland should not make these laws. They may think this because they believe Ireland is trying to control these countries. These countries may also not want Ireland to make these rules because they may think that Ireland can only make rules for Ireland, not other countries. Ireland really wants these countries to take account of this suggestion and try to make change within their own countries.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Today was not a good day for me. Not many days are. It started out a warm day. The sun was shining and people where getting on with their lives, drive-bys, robbing banks and the normal nine to five jobs that where available. I don't live in a particularly nice place, Harlem, but at the moment I could only afford to live there. I walked out of my small one bedroom, cramped flat onto the busy street and was on the way to the bus stop to get to work when two people came out of nowhere and attacked me. They stole my wallet and ran away. After about five minutes I limped up off the floor and continued my journey to work. After that it was a slow and painful walk but I eventually reached the bus stop. The bus arrived and I got on. I had to push my way to the back and had to stand up at the back of the bus because there wasn't a free seat available. I glanced down at my watch and realised that I was already five minutes late for work. I had to try so hard to find a job and I didn't want to loose this one and go back to living on the streets. Most people didn't want to hire a black person to even clean the dishes at a restaurant. There was always the option of cleaning the streets but I had only come to America to make a small fortune then I would have gone back home. But now I realise that life doesn't always turn out as you expected to. I worked in a small cafi. I didn't make much there but I could live off it. I got off the bus in a rush and ran down the street as fast as my legs could carry me, ignoring the pain I was still in. The cafi I worked in was two blocks away from the bus stop so I was still quite far away from it. I finally reached it. It was a small white building, which, was really in need of a clean and a paint job. I ran in the back door and started to get changed. My boss was standing at the door and he looked quite angry. I slowly walked up to him and apologised for being late. All I could think about was what he was going to say to me. He had been the only person to give me a chance to work. I tried to apologise to him but he just told me to get my stuff and go home. I decided to walk back home. All I could think about was how back home in the morning you would wake up to the sound of the waves hitting the rocks and the smell of the salt from the sea. I thought about how friendly the people where there and missed the simplicity of life. I thought about the sun setting on the beach and listening to the sea slop around calmly over the gold and silver sand. How at night you can smell the fresh sea air intertwined with the smells of the foods that people had prepared earlier for themselves , carried with the smell of the pure reefer that you got there, not the chemical stuff that you get in Harlem , that's sold on the street corners by the dealers. Then I thought about my home there. I wasn't much but to me it was more than I have in Harlem. It was a little wooden hut. I continued to comfort myself as I solemnly walked back to my apartment. As I walked across a road a man stuck out his leg and tripped me over. I saw the man walk off and cars swerved around me trying not to run me over. I quickly got up and started to run home. I tried to avoid anyone I could see so that my journey back would be quicker. I knew that I was quite close to my apartment so I hurried even more. I finally arrived and as I walked up the stairs people where staring at me. I got inside and felt so depressed. It was the type of feeling when your goalkeeper gets sent off in the 18th minute of the champion's league final. Now all I want to do is go back to Jamaica and see my family but I cant afford it so all I have left is my memories of the past.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Marc Kasky versus NikeÃ¢â¬ 1. What responsibility does Nike have for conditions of work at foreign factories making its products? The company expanded efforts to stop workplace abuse and started a public relations campaign. It became the only shoe company in the world to eliminate the use of polyvinyl chloride in shoes construction, ending worker exposure to chloride compounds. It revised its conduct code, expanding protections for workers. It set up a compliance department of more than 50 employees. Its staff members were assigned to specific Asian plants or to a region, where they trained local managers and did audits assessing code compliance. Nike helped to start a voluntary CSR initiative called the Fair Labor Association toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Regarding the most controversial social and yet throughout the history of NIKE to the end of 2020 is expected to have only topics contract factories that demonstrate a commitment to their employees and include protection and workers rights, issues health and safety, and a progressive movement toward defining the approach of the just wage proposed by the fair Labor Association. Although this is advertised, what really matters is to be met, so hopefully within the program when finished, have minimally met these standards have been proposed. And if so, NIKE would be an example of a brand with a good Corporative Social Responsibility 4. Did the California Supreme Court correctly decide the Kasky case? Why or why not? The highest American court decided to send the famous record vs. Nike Kasky lower courts, saying that did not belong to his jurisdiction. The Supreme Court rejected an appeal by the Nike Company in which it was stated that an advertising campaign to refute accusations of exploitation of staff was protected by the right to freedom of expression. The case of Nike vs Kasky, was rejected on a technicality, and in fact goes back to the lower courts of the American legal structure. But, anyway, has major implications for advertisers in general. If Nike had actually lost, would have severely limited the possibilities for companies to defend themselves publicly.Show MoreRelatedCorporate Social Response6999 Words Ã |Ã 28 Pagesthe Corporate Crime Reporter: The CSR cost for Nike is about $10 million to $12 million a year, just for the CSR staff and expenses, to go to these sustainability meetings all over the world. ... They have two or three Nike people at every meeting. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s part of the CSR game. ... I figure 75 cents per pair of shoes to the worker would fix the problem. If Nike instead paid workers 75 cents more per pair of shoes, do you know what that would cost Nike compared to the CSR cost? That would cost themRead MoreInternational Management67196 Words Ã |Ã 269 PagesDevelopmental Editor: Jane Beck Associate M arketing Manager: Jaime Halteman Project Manager: Erin Melloy Buyer: Kara Kudronowicz Design Coordinator: Margarite Reynolds Cover Designer: Studio Montage, St. Louis, Missouri Cover Images: Top to bottom, Ã © Mark Downey/Getty Images; Jacobs Stock Photography/Getty Images; Ã © Goodshoot/PunchStock Media Project Manager: Balaji Sundararaman Compositor: AptaraÃ ®, Inc. Typeface: 10/12 Times Roman Printer: Quad/Graphics All credits appearing on page or at the end of