Thursday, February 27, 2020

Budgeting as a form of management control Essay

Budgeting as a form of management control - Essay Example Budgeting is a very useful tool in businesses. The benefits to be gained from budgeting are numerous and are available to all companies inclusive of Production Solutions Ltd. It ensures the achievement of the organisation’s objectives (BPP 1998) by forcing managers to carry out an assessment of what may happen in the future and set detailed plans for achieving the targeted results for the functional departments in the organisation. It also takes into consideration the problems that are likely to be encountered. Budgeting communicates ideas and plans (BPP 1998) so as to ensure that each employee that is affected by the plan is aware of his or her role in helping the organisation to achieve its goals. Communication can either be two-way or one-way. Two-way communication allows for dialogue until an understanding exists of what exactly needs to be done. One way communication takes place when management gives instructions or orders to subordinates to perform a task.Budgeting can a lso coordinate activities among the various departments at Production Solutions Ltd to ensure that there is full integration of the efforts to achieve the goals that have been set. In this respect the sales expected will be communicated in the sales forecast and the production department will base its production plans on the sales forecasted. The purchasing department will plan its purchases based on the amount of buffer stock it needs to maintain at all times and in conjunction with the production plan. Budgeting can provide a framework for responsibility accounting (BPP 1998) by making the different functional departments or budget centres at Production Solutions Ltd responsible for achieving their plans for the operations under their control. Budgeting can also establish a system of control by way of managers comparing the actual results with the plan (BPP 1998). Any deviation from the plan needs to be investigated and appropriate actions taken to close the gap between the result s and the plan. Additionally, budgeting can be used to motivate employees to improve their performance by offering them rewards if they meet their targets. BPP 1992 suggests that two levels of attainment should be set so as to challenge employees. â€Å"A minimum expectations budget and a desired standards budget which provides some sort of challenge to employees†. The appraisal system lets them know how badly or how well they are doing and what they can do to improve performance if they are performing below standard. The cash budget will indicate cash surplus and cash requirements. Therefore, management can make decisions on how to address the shortfall where this exist. The cash budget for the Company suggests that it may not be a good idea to carry out the plans noted as it could place the company in a worse position than it is in currently. The increased sales and the resultant changes in the credit terms will affect the profits and the cash flow position respectively. At tention should be placed on preparing a master budget which will link or integrate the various functions in the organisation. A master budget is an essential management tool that communicates management’

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Aboriginal perspectives and science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Aboriginal perspectives and science - Essay Example The concept of indigenous science is very unfamiliar to most Canadian education systems. The education policies that was developed by the Ontario first nation was to provide a framework that will provide institutions with a strategic policy natural systems context within which Ministry of Education and school boards can work together to improve the academic performance of the non-aboriginal students. As described by Michell, Herman and Yvonne in ``Learning Indigenous science from place`` (pg. 6), ‘Aboriginal perspective of indigenous science is a study of natural system that contributes to a holistic view of the environment and the role of human beings in the environment’. This holistic nature of the indigenous science is composed of physical, intellectual, affective and spiritual domains of learning. For this reason the aboriginal community have wished to incorporate cultural teaching within mainstream or other institutional curricula, but there was a concern that was r aised based on the need to help universities systems to prepare students to choose their careers within scientific discipline. The framework provided in http://library2.usask.ca/native/ library website, also clarifies the roles and relationships of the ministry to Inuit students achieve their education goals and close the gap in academic achievement with the non-aboriginal students. A guideline emerged from a certain research project that aimed at fostering collaboration among a diverse range of group of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal educators and scientist. The indigenous study has experienced acknowledgement within traditional ways and cultural practices as a method for sharing, learning, and collecting knowledge development and maintenance. The purpose of the group of Aboriginal students, educators and scientist is to begin the conservations to envision, discuss, and to clarify a philosophy and framework of aboriginal science. The aboriginal people of the 21st century have been so diverse such that their personal beliefs and ideologies as to any other cultural and ethnic group makes it important for educators to realize that these people have traditionally held and have maintained unique perspective that is much different from that of non-aboriginal peoples. The implications of the research have been anticipated to nature all learners in science schools regar dless of their cultural background. Aikenhead (2006, Pg. 7), states that the believe of incorporating Aboriginal perspectives in the school of science will help nature students’ and educators’ in understanding and appreciating indigenous knowledge systems that have not that been a major part of many institutions curriculum in the past. The primary connections of indigenous perspectives framework is aiming to accelerate science and literacy learning outcome for indigenous students and increase non-aboriginal students teachers awareness and understanding of the indigenous perspectives. It also acknowledges the contribution of those involved with development of the indigenous perspectives framework which is based on national research findings and collaboration with Aboriginal groups. Discussion Aboriginal people have viewed themselves to be part of intimately connected individuals and therefore they have acted as the guide to the way in which people and visitors in need a re to be helped traditionally. There have been a lot of aboriginal resources that have described and indicated the role of indigenous science. The need to integrate aboriginal perspectives into the science curriculum in most countries is clear and immediate. Aboriginal resources are used to help understand the knowledge of indigenous

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

As It Is in Heaven Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

As It Is in Heaven - Essay Example At the beginning, the presence of the church environment gives an assumption that everything is going well in this society. It is not until every individual’s privacy is revealed that the viewer realizes that family issues are a society planning issues that has remained largely unresolved. When Daniel sought refuge in his home village, he is received by a church minister who hands him a bible. Daniel is used to capitalistic life in town, and he tries to shun social life as seen when he turned down the minister’s invitation to a diner. However, the pressure from the church choir and music in him is too high and he accepts to join and train the choir members. The armature singers use the music to placate their familial challenges. In their chapter seven article Massey and Denton (1993) start by quoting Pam Grier who analyzes that people are hopeless in the society because their daily lives are challenging, hence prompting them to go to some sort of entertainment. In this film, music is the outlet that the choir members chose to indulge in to release their live stresses. David teaches them how to sing as they listen to their hearts, how to perfect their vocals and how to cooperate and not compete in their common endeavors. This goal is of great importance because it symbolizes the way family institution should function in the society. It is a contrast of how the families in the movie have been operating and how women have been enduring their problems. For instance, Daniel is caught in a web of attention when several women from the choir start competing for his attention. His attention was caught by Lena, a young attractive girl in the choir. As their love grows, the personal problems of the other choir members confront him. This is a microcosmic example of the family issues in the society. For example, Inger the minister’s wife also secretly admires Daniels because she is sexually repressed. The woman is enduring a failed sexual relationship w ith her husband. This is a depiction of how the church has failed to plan family matters. The extreme of this irony is when the church minister becomes jealous when the choir starts succeeding. He is threatened by the unity and the zeal of the choir. He tries to shatter their dreams but he failed and this failure leads to his ultimate nervous breakdown. Daniel engages the choir members into lessons that liberate them, and the first person to be set free is the minister’s wife. Inger later goes to her husband and tells him that she no longer believes in sin. She claimed that their marriage is spoilt by the religion, which was brought to the community by outsiders. Gabriella is a highly talented singer in the choir, but her husband always batters her and the village is not concerned; everyone is minding his own business. It was Gabriella’s husband, Connie who schooled with Daniel and drove Daniel out of the village. Connie is later left by his wife and he blames Daniel a nd the choir for influencing his wife wrongly. He attacks and assaults Daniel, an act that sends him to jail. Individual freedom and the society relation with members The movie gives an excellent depiction of how individual freedom is compromized by the society members. At the beginning of the movie, the viewer meets Daniel who has already returned to his village after

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Your task is to develop a model which could be used to inform an Essay

Your task is to develop a model which could be used to inform an economic evaluation - Essay Example It can be seen that the maximum amount of money is spend on the diagnostic procedure- echocardiogram. Around 142.16 $ is spend for this. Then the model included other primary evaluations in health care for the particular disease as ECG, TFT, INR, FBC, coagulation studies and medication. The total cost incurred for the primary visit is 418. 08. There have been reviews on the increased cost of ECG on adolescents and neonates. It is estimated that cost effectiveness was at peak between [,000 in 14 year olds and $ 204000 in screening done in 8 year children for the life saved per year. (Saul, Samuel & Gidding 2014). Both warfarin and aspirin are anti-coagulants, which are administered to prevent the clot formation in the blood vessels of heart, which may lead to cardiovascular diseases. Warfarin and aspirin were administered in patients at risk of developing heart problems. Risk category included obese patients, patients with diabetes mellitus. It may seen that, the cost spent for visit of general practitioner without the administration of any medication and with the prescription of aspirin was the same (552,992 $). The cost spent for speciality visit was same for all three categories. The use of diagnostic procedures like ECG and Echocardiogram spent the same amount. The amount of money spent on TFT is same for all the three categories. No amount of money was additionally spent on INR, FBC, and coagulation studies on the administration of aspirin and warfarin. When the total cost was estimated along with the administration of medication and frequency of use, less amount of money was spent when aspirin was used for prevention. After deploying this model for three years, the end result was found use of aspirin prevented the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases in comparison with administration of warfarin and without any intervention. This indicates that this model may be used in the prevention of