Saturday, March 14, 2020
Verbal Aggression Essays - Behaviorism, Aggression, Free Essays Verbal Aggression Verbal aggression is message behavior which attacks a person's self-concept in order to deliver psychological pain.(Infante, 1995) Studies of verbal aggression have focused primarily on children and adolescents in educational and social settings. Very few studies were found to examine verbal aggression in adults in the workplace.(Ebbesen, Duncan, Konecni, 1974) The consequences of verbal aggression in the workplace can lead to social isolation, job related stress, health related problems, as well as problems in career advancement. It therefore should be considered important, for the individual and management, to identify and address the causes of verbal aggression. This program attempts to understand verbal aggression by 1) identifying the various functions of verbal aggression. 2) identifying the antecedent conditions of verbal aggression. 3) Avoiding the antecedent conditions of verbal aggression. Method Subject The subject, Shirley J., is a 49 year old African American female. Shirley J. has several advanced degrees and is employed as a school psychologist in a metropolitan school district. She is married with two adult children. The subject readily agreed that the target behavior, verbal aggression, is a problem as it interferes with her relationships with others. She was enthusiastic in her desire to reduce, if not eliminate, this behavior. It would seem that self-monitoring for verbal aggression and antecedent control would be valuable as it would allow for consistent avoidance of verbal aggression. As a school psychologist the subject was very familiar with the basic principles of applied behavioral analysis and frequently offered programmatic suggestions. A behavioral contract was developed jointly between the therapist and subject. The contract outlined the target behavior, success criteria, and individual responsibilities of the therapist and subject. (see Appendix A) Apparatus A basic checklist was used to document the frequency of verbal aggression on a daily basis. The checklist was designed to track only the occurrence of the behavior. It was felt by the therapist that the content of the verbally aggressive message would be too open for subjective interpretation and that no meaningful data would be gained from such documentation. In addition the subject made frequent comments of significant success or failure in avoiding verbal aggression for discussion with the therapist. The weekly discussions were used to evaluate the appropriateness of the procedures used and make any necessary adjustments to the program. Procedure For the first two weeks of the program no intervention was applied. Given that the subject self-reported that verbal aggression was a problem it was important to determine if the frequency of the behavior merited intervention. Therefore, the subject documented the daily frequency of verbal aggression. The results of the baseline period revealed a high rate of verbal aggression. (see Appendix B) Given the results of the baseline data as well as the demanding, often stressful, nature of the subjects job, it was mutually agreed that reducing verbal aggression would be the focus of the program. Verbal aggression was defined as cursing, yelling, and screaming at others. The agreed upon goals of the program was to decrease verbal aggression by 75% of baseline for four consecutive weeks. Treatment would consist of identifying and avoiding the antecedent conditions to verbal aggression. Avoidance of the antecedents is considered less restrictive, more proactive, and most effective. During the initial consultation it was determined that the antecedent conditions included, but was not limited to: work stress, time of day, verbal behavior of others (ie. tone of voice, inflection of voice and content of conversation, etc.), and non-verbal behavior of others (ie. facial expression, body posture, eye contact, etc.). In addition, the subject was required to self monitor for the following antecedents: clenched fists, tight jaw, rapid heart beat, and the emotions of anger, frustration and disappointment. Lastly, it was suggested by Infante (1995) that appropriate strategy must be taken to prevent verbal aggression from escalating. Successful avoidance of the antecedent conditions consisted of removing oneself from stressful situations, when possible, as well as not responding verbally when provoked. Weekly consultation revealed that verbal aggression was most often used to: 1) Escape demand situations. 2) Avoid demand situations. 3) Relieve job stress. The subject was to document the frequency of verbal aggression and record the circumstances of significant success or failure during the work week for discussion at weekly consultation sessions. A schedule of
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Mental Health Parity Act In September 2007, the United States Senate collectively passed the Mental Health Parity Act (MPHA) of 2007. If the Act passes, it will ensure that private health insurance plans provide equal coverage for mental health as it would for physical health. In which case, insurers cannot establish different financial requirements for mental health, such as deductibles, co-pays, annual and lifetime limits. Thus, health plans will no longer ban discriminatory limits on number of outpatient visits and days of inpatient coverage for mental health care services, and prevent state laws affecting financial requirements and treatment limitations for mental health care services.The concept of parity means equal treatment for mental health services as it would for medical and surgical services. Parity is important because it demonstrates desirability for policyholders to seek mental health treatment, thereby taking a preventative care approach that will possibly reduce costs at many levels. Like ac cess to general medical care, access to mental health care can play an important role in whether people receive the treatment.Maryland Health Insurance Plan Federal Press Annou...Most health insurance includes mental health benefits. However, such benefits are more limited than medical/surgical benefits especially as it relates to the number of visits covered, higher patient cost-sharing requirements, and limits on total expenses covered by the plan.According to the American Psychological Association (APA), two third of 44 million Americans with mental disorders either are under-treated or receiving no treatment at all. Moreover, recent research indicates that more than one out of four American has a diagnosable mental disorder, but the majority cannot afford treatment (Maxfield, Achman, Buck, Teich, 2007, p. 83). In 1999, approximately 76% of the United States population had some mental health benefits (Maxfield, Achman, Buck, Teich, 2007, p. 94). Yet, less than half (about 44%) of the U.S. population had mental health benefits...