Thursday, June 4, 2020

Bill Clinton The Speech on Signing of NAFTA (1993) - 275 Words

Bill Clinton: The Speech on Signing of NAFTA (1993) (Essay Sample) Content: NameInstructorCourseDateBill Clinton, Speech on Signing of NAFTA (1993)Bill Clinton the then president of the united states of America delivered this speech on the day the North American Trade Agreement was being officially initiated to become operational. He is motivated to speak about it since it has been so tough to convince the various stakeholders, including the congress, the citizen of America and the rest of the other countries to accept the free trade among the North American counties. In this case, Bill Clinton feels happy and like a hero for having won the heart of these stakeholder to accept it (Hagen, Katherine 917.). The opportunity in the treaty makes him have a chance to show the world he performed his function as the president of creating job opportunities for not only his country, but to the rest of the countries who were to be the members of NAFTA.Bill Clinton is motivated to express his points in the speech by the fact that all members were ready t o pay him attention. He was seen as a hero who did the impossible. Therefore it was his responsibility to convince the stakeholders involved that it is achievable and give the citizen hope of better life and good employment. This is why he speaks with vigor and with a lot of motivation.In his speech, he risk discouraging the other nations not to sign the treaty. For this reason, bill Clinton becomes very careful to mention the relevant issues that was to make the three nation to sign the treaty. In this case, he had to show the relevance of the NAFTA treaty to the other nations. He therefore achieve this by giving the advantages of the treaty and how each and every nation which will be a signatory will enjoy. Bill Clinton had to take further precautions not to let his individual citizens loss hopes in him. For this reason, he had to convince the citizens of the United States of America that it is a way that they will have to expand the opportunities in the nation.The massage from th e speech becomes very clear. That is he wanted to express his gratitude to all the stakeholders who accepted to be part of the treaty. He also wanted to appreciate the citizen and the congress for participating actively in the treaty. In addition, he wanted to build hope for the treaty and build a positive energy for the enactment of the treaty. To achieve this, he reminds the Americans of their past history of not accepting treaties the negative reparations, especially in the case of the great depression that tr...

Sunday, May 24, 2020

4th Grade Science Experiments

Great 4th-grade science fair projects involve answering a question, solving a problem, or testing a hypothesis. Usually, a teacher or parent helps work out the hypothesis and design the project. Fourth graders have a good understanding of scientific concepts, but they may need help with the scientific method and organizing a poster or presentation. The key to developing a successful project is finding an idea that is interesting to a 4th grader. Experiment Ideas The best experiments usually begin with a question to which you dont know the answer. Once youve formulated a question, you can design a simple experiment to help figure out the answer: Do cockroaches have a preference for direction? Catch and release cockroaches. Which way do they go? Is there a common trend or not? You can try this project with ants or other crawling insects as well.Do colored ice cubes melt at the same rate as clear ice cubes? Add food coloring to an ice cube tray and compare how long the colored cubes take to melt compared to the regular ones.Does magnetism travel through all materials? Put different materials between a magnet and metal. Do they affect how strongly the magnet is attracted to the metal? If so, do they all affect the magnetic field to the same degree?Do all crayon colors last the same? Draw a really long line with one color, then draw the same length of line with another color. Are both crayons the same length?What is the effect of microwaving seeds on their germination rate? Test seeds that sprout quickly, like radish seeds, and different microwave times, such as 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 30 seconds, one minute. Use a control (no mi crowave) treatment for comparison.Will seeds germinate if you soak them in a liquid other than water? You can try milk, juice, vinegar, and other common household liquids. Alternatively, you could see if plants will grow if they are watered with liquids other than water.Make a simple homemade windmill. What is the best number of blades for the windmill?How much salt (or sugar) can a plant tolerate? Water plants with a different solution of salt or sugar. How high of a concentration can the plant tolerate? A related question would be to see if plants can survive if they are watered with soapy water such as leftover dishwater.Do birds have a preference for birdhouse material? In other words, do they seem to care if the birdhouse is made of wood or plastic or metal?Do worms react when they are exposed to light? Do they react differently when they are exposed to different colors of light?Do ants prefer different types of sugar? Test using table sugar, honey, maple syrup, and molasses.Ca n you taste the difference between foods that contain fat and fat-free versions of the same product?Compare the water filtration rate of different brands of coffee filters. Take one cup of liquid and time how long it takes to pass through the filter. Do the different filters affect the flavor of the coffee?Do white candles and colored candles burn at the same rate?Write messages using different types of invisible ink. Which was the most invisible? Which method produced a message that was easy to read after it was revealed?

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Same Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized Essay - 1289 Words

Could you imagine if you had met the ideal person you wished to share your entire life with but the law would not allow you to? That is the position that many homosexual Australians have been in since the settlement of this country. Same sex marriage is currently not allowed in Australia but I and a proven 60% of other Australians strongly believe it should be. Gay people pay taxes, serve in the military, participate in the workforce, are our neighbors, friends and family. Logic and decency would suggest that they should have the right to marry, just as any heterosexual couple can. However, there are people who disagree with this belief, take for example the government, namely Australia’s prime minister, Julia Gillard, several religious†¦show more content†¦I often wonder, before making her statement, did Julia Gillard not read section 116 of the Australian constitution? â€Å"The Commonwealth shall not make any law for establishing any religion, or for imposing any religious observance, or for prohibiting the free exercise of any religion†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Tradition once dictated that women could not own property or run for Parliament, let alone become Prime Minister. So why can’t Australia â€Å"move forward† with the times on this issue too, to give equality to all its citizens? The problem with Julia Gillard’s so called justification of not allowing gays to be wed is that the term ‘marriage’ in Australia is used in a legal sense and therefore loses any right to be counted as purely a religious ceremony. Marriage existed long before Christianity did. In fact, marriage, historically, was a European business agreement arranged by parents in order to protect bloodlines and inheritance rights. If Julia Gillard truly believes that marriage is a religious ceremony, then if we should ban anybody from getting married, it should be atheists like her. In the Catholic Christian bible, Leviticus 20:13 reads If a man lies with a man as one lies with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable. They must be put to death; their blood will be on their own heads.† The same book in the bible also states that it is a sin to get a haircut or shave your beard.Show MoreRelatedShould Same-Sex Marriages Be Legalized?. Same-Sex Marriages2063 Words   |  9 PagesShould Same-Sex Marriages Be Legalized? Same-sex marriages should be illegal because the increase of marriages with the same sex has aroused conflicts in society, affects on children, and religiously. Therefore one must halt the proposal. The history of homosexuality has a lot of stories to tell, however, the beginning of it all would begin shortly and oddly. On the Western contemporary concept of homosexuality would relatively currently be considered new during the day of time. Ideas of homosexualityRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized . The Same Sex Marriage1723 Words   |  7 Pages Same sex marriage should be legalized The same sex marriage has been widely debated in many countries for a long time. It is an important issue because it concerns basic moral and human rights. People all over the world come to the United States in search of freedom and equality. Being able to marry anyone, no matter the gender, is a freedom of right, but if that freedom of right is taken away from people than there is no equality. Homosexual peopleRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Not Be Legalized926 Words   |  4 Pageshave misunderstood the meaning of marriage. Marriage is not just a term to describe relationship that are precious to us, it’s more than just a union of heart and mind; it’s an institution between a man and a women. biblically, marriage is a life time union of a man and a women, primarily for the purpose of building a family and providing a stable environments for that family (1 Corinthian 7:2 16) According to Peter Sprigg, same sex marriage should not be legalized because of its immediate and long-termRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized1361 Words   |  6 PagesSame sex marriage has been the topic of an ongoing controversial debate in many countries for a long time now. This is an important issue because it concerns the basic principle of human rights and basic morality. Same sex marriage should be legalized; it is a violation of human rights, there are many misconceptions of same sex individuals, and allowing same sex marriage to be legalized would provide a boost to the economy. There are many misconceptions of homosexual people. A common myth is thatRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Not Be Legalized1562 Words   |  7 Pages~ Busse Same-Sex Debate Essay ~ Ever since the time when America studied family values and focused on healthy and important influences, marriage was considered to be between man and woman holding a physical and spiritual bond between each other, not between man and man and woman and woman. Some may see marriage as between two people of the same gender, or what is known as same-sex marriage. This form of marriage became popular in the U.S. during the 1960’s and 1970’s due to the urge of legalizationRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized898 Words   |  4 Pages2015 same sex marriage was legalized in all fifty states. Many arguments have come around about if homosexuality is genetic or if its chosen. Many people think either way and there aren’t many people who are in between thinking that homosexuality is chosen or not. The song â€Å"Same Love† by Macklemore was released in 2015 when all of the media slowed down about homosexuality and after same sex marriage was legalize d. So when Macklemore released this song more attention came to same sex marriage. ThisRead MoreShould Same Sex Marriage Be Legalized?1372 Words   |  6 PagesThe â€Å"date which will live in infamy† just had a child! As of June 26, 2015, same-sex marriage was legalized in all 50 states of America by the Supreme Court from a ruling that barely passed by a 5-4 vote. Wait a minute. Back up. Do you mean to tell me that boys can marry boys now? That girls can marry girls? That it’s legal?! Wake up America! Do you even realize what you have done? You have given gay people the right to marry. To marry! Who in their right mind would give gay people that cherishedRead MoreShould Same Sex Marriage Be Legalized?945 Words   |  4 PagesShould Same-Sex Marriage Be Legalized? Regardless of color, ethnicity, culture or religion, marriage has been and always have considered to be a man and a woman. This concern has been a debating and a hot topic currently in the United States p olitics, it is prohibited in a majority of the nation till the President have pass the law for same-sex marriage. With this question, I feel that same sex marriage should not be legalized, but it cannot be banned. I sense that a marriage is intensely betweenRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized972 Words   |  4 PagesSame sex couples have been waiting for same sex marriage to be legalized for many decades. According to Ken LaMance, â€Å"One of the first documented challenges to same-sex marriages occurred on May 18th, 1970, where two men applied for a marriage license in Heppenin County, Minnesota† (LaMance). Their request was denied because they felt marriage should be between a man and a woman. Civil Unions were the first step in legalizing same sex marriage. Civil Unions were introduced in 2000 in Vermont. CivilRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized910 Words   |  4 PagesSame-sex marriages also know, as gay/ Lesbian marriage is marriage between peop le of the same sex either as a secular civil ceremony or in a religious setting. In the late 20th century. Religious rites of marriage without legal recognition became increasingly common. In the 21st centuries various types of the same-sex unions have come to be legalized. As of 26 June 2015, eighteen countries; Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Price Makers and Price Takers - 952 Words

Market Structure o Perfect (pure) competition Price–taking firms each with no influence over the ruling market price (see diagram below) Free entry and exist of businesses in the long run – drives down profits towards a normal profit equilibrium level Each supplier produces homogeneous products – each a perfect substitute – hence the perfectly elastic demand curve for the individual supplier Key factor - interdependent nature of pricing decisions between rival firms Each firm must consider strategic behaviour of other â€Å"players† in the market Objective might be protecting market share or increasing market share Game theory can help to model different types of behaviour (both price and non- price competition) Kinked demand curve†¦show more content†¦When demand is strong and rising (e.g. during the upturn phase of the economic cycle), a business will have more â€Å"pricing power† than when demand is much weaker and falling (e.g. during a recession). Often a market may be affected by a demand-side â€Å"shock† which takes away the pricing power of suppliers. The airline industry in the wake of the terrorist attacks in 2001 could be considered as an example of this. Summary of the main factors affecting a firm’s pricing power Category Costs Competitors Influence on Pricing Policy In order to make a profit, a business should ensure that its products are priced above their average cost. In the short-term, it may be acceptable to price below AC if this price exceeds marginal cost – so that the sale still produces a positive contribution to fixed costs. If the business is a monopolist, then it has price-setting power. At the other extreme, if a firm operates under conditions of perfect competition, it has no choice and must accept the market price. The reality is usually somewhere in between. In such cases the chosen price needs to be considered relative to those of close competitors and with one eye to the likely reaction of rival firms when a business changes its pricing strategy.Show MoreRelatedWalmart, The Giant Utopia, By Sam Walton Essay981 Words   |  4 Pages Walmart, the giant utopia, the place where a lot of people usually do their shopping for the low prices and the variety of products was founded by Sam Walton. Walton was an entrepreneur a very different and innovative vision than with what was the norm at the time. He started his own company and made it into the leader in discount retailing that it is today. In fact, Walmart is considered to be the biggest company in the U.S. and it has stores worldwide. A lot of controversy orbits this huge companyRead MoreManagerial Economics Chapter 9 Essay1641 Words   |  7 Pagesmarkets, prices are determined by The interaction of market demand and supply because firms and consumers are price takers. Price taker Buyer or seller that is unable to affect the market price. A buyer or seller that takes the market price as given When are firms likely to be price takers? A firm is likely to be a price taker when†¦.. it sells a product that is exactly the same as every other firm. It represents a small fraction of the total market. Consumers are usually price takers when theyRead MoreThe Various Shades Of Monopolies And Perfect Competition1003 Words   |  5 Pagescontrol the prices for its goods or services, or in other words, they represent the market. They indeed have detrimental effects on consumer and social welfare, which is why most do not agree with them. This paper is an attempt to address the various points of monopolies in a society of competition. Keywords: Monopoly, Perfect Competition, Price maker, Barriers â€Æ' The Various Shades of Monopolies and Perfect Competition The perfectly competitive firm is considered the price taker, whereas theRead MorePerfect Competition1463 Words   |  6 Pagespower  to set the price of a homogeneous product. Because the conditions for perfect competition are strict, there are few if any perfectly competitive markets. Still, buyers and sellers in some  auction-type markets, say for  commodities  or some financial assets, may approximate the concept. Perfect competition serves as a benchmark against which to measure real-life and  imperfectly competitive  markets. Generally, a perfectly competitive market exists when every participant is a price taker, and no participantRead MorePure Monopoly in a Competitive World Essay996 Words   |  4 PagesIn the business world, the perfectly competitive firm is considered the price taker, whereas the monopolistic firm is the price maker, meaning they have control over the price. Pure monopoly does exist in today’s business world; we all have had the opportunity to have personal dealings with such companies. This assignment will discuss the various degrees of â€Å"monopolies† and attempt to provide accurate examples, allowing me to share my understanding of the competitive business market. In a competitiveRead MoreMarket Structures and Competitive Strategies1193 Words   |  5 PagesMarket Structures and Competitive Strategies ECO/365 Market Structures and Competitive Strategies Introduction There are many other soft drink makers but Coca Cola has been renowned to be one of the world’s top best soft drink makers and is among the best brands ever for a lot of years. It has the gain of a marketplace leader spot in drinks dealing with Pepsi in the subsequent spot. Coca cola functions in an oligopoly marketplace foundation where there are just scarcely any market playersRead More1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 COMPANY BACKGROUND The 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO ASSIGNMENT The 1.3 COMPANY600 Words   |  3 Pagescontrol of the price that it sets out in the market which makes the company the price maker. As a monopoly, it charges its customers based on what the company thinks are a reasonable price. Even though the government tends to ensure that prices are at a reasonable price, the company still makes the final decision as to how much to charge for the services it provide. This explains the reason why TM is said to be in control of the pricing system as competitors do not affect its decision on price. 3.3 COMPETITIONRead MoreLegal Laws Of The U. S. Drug Patent Laws864 Words   |  4 Pagestotally different types of competition. A flawlessly competitive market has several different representatives selling the exact same products. These representatives are considered to be price takers in reference to the competition. Price takers are firms that have no market power. They simply have to take the market price as given (Lumen, 2017). A monopoly starts when a single company sells a product that cannot be reproduced. Microsoft is a perfect example of a company that is seen as a monopoly dueRead MoreExplicit Costs and Implicit Costs Concepts1545 Words   |  7 Pagesequilibrium price of the market or the total quantity supplied in the market. Thus, a firm operating in a competitive market has no incentive to supply at a price lower than market equilibrium price, as it can sell all it wants to supply at equilibrium. At the same time, the firm cannot sell at price higher than the mar ket price, because it will not be able to find buyers at that price. Because of the limited scope of economies of scale available to the firm, it is called a price taker. If a firmRead MoreExplicit Costs And Implicit Costs Concepts1564 Words   |  7 Pagesequilibrium price of the market or the total quantity supplied in the market. Thus, a firm operating in a competitive market has no incentive to supply at a price lower than market equilibrium price, as it can sell all it wants to supply at equilibrium. At the same time, the firm cannot sell at price higher than the market price, because it will not be able to find buyers at that price. Because of the limited scope of economies of scale available to the firm, it is called a price taker. If a firm

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about William Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet - 969 Words

William Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet written by William Shakespeare, tells the story of too unfortunate lovers caught up in their family’s hatred which in the end leads to the tragic deaths of both lovers. Classical Greek tragedy influenced Renaissance writers greatly Shakespeare was no exception. According to the dictionary, fate is ‘the supposed force, principle, or power that predetermines event.’ Which means that it is out of our hands. I believe Shakespeare wanted his audience to believe that fate was to blame rather than the actions of the characters. In â€Å"Romeo and Juliet† there are many references to the stars and fate; this makes it clear that the play is a classical†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬ËœYour lives shall pay the forfeit of the peace.’ This is the first insight of fate stepping in. Romeo wasn’t involved in the fight, as he was very much in to himself at this point feeling sorry for himself and lusting after the love of Rosaline. ‘Bid a sick man in sadness make his will- a word ill urg’d to one that is so ill: in sadness, cousin, I do love a woman.’ This show’s that Romeo falls in love very easily and is one of his floors and pretension downfalls. The way in which Romeo and Juliet met has a link to fate, in act one scene two a serving man asks Romeo and Benvolio to read the invitation for the Capulet’s party as he cant read and he invites them along. ‘My master the is the great rich Capulet, and if you be not of the house of Montagues, I pray you come and crush a cup- of wine.’ Benvolio Mercutio and Romeo decide they will go to the party Romeo is unsure about the party as he had a dream. ‘I fear to early for my mind misgives some consequence yet hanging in the stars shall bitterly begin his fearful date with this night revels, and expire the term of a depised life clos’d in my breast. ‘By some vile forfeit of untimely death.’ Before Romeo goes he foreshadows the event and in his heart and mind he knows that something will go wrong, although he feels uneasy about the situation he goes and know that his love Rosaline will be there. Romeo hasShow MoreRelatedRomeo and Juliet by Wil liam Shakespeare619 Words   |  3 PagesRomeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare is a play written in the 16th century that’s about a tragic love story between two teenagers who come from rival families, yet fate brings them together and despite the grudge that each family holds for the other; they fall in love. Throughout the story they hide their love from other people especially their families and marry and when Romeo is banished for murder they conceive a plan to run off together. From this story, we learn how two teenagers deceiveRead MoreRomeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare818 Words   |  3 PagesThroughout history, Shakespeare has been given credit for the popularizing of tragedies, causing a tragic hero to be seen as a reputable character. In Shakespeare’s story â€Å"Romeo and Juliet,† two ill-fated lovers are caught between the bitter hatred of their two families. Knowing their parents would never approve, Romeo and Juliet struggle to keep their love a secret. Though the story ends in what most people would view as a tragedy, Romeo fails to meet the characteristics of a tragic hero establishedRead MoreRomeo And Juliet by William Shakespeare967 Words   |  4 PagesRomeo And Juliet by William Shakespeare In Romeo and Juliet the beauty and ardour of young love is seen by Shakespeare as the irradiating glory of sunlight and starlight in a dark work. Discuss the techniques that Shakespeare would have used to capture this dominating image of light. In the time of Shakespeare, his plays would have been performed during the day, using natural light from the open centre of the theatre. Since there could be no dramatic lighting andRead MoreRomeo and Juliet, by William Shakespeare532 Words   |  2 Pages In William Shakespeare’s, classic play, Romeo and Juliet, a young girl, Juliet, has fallen in love with a boy from a feuding family, Romeo. Friar Laurence, the priest, has married them against the rules. Juliet’s cousin, Tybalt starts a fight with Romeo and Romeo kills Tybalt. Romeo, in hysteria and distress goes searching for Friar Laurence’s advice, since the Friar is the only one who knows about the marriage besides the Nurse, Romeo and Juliet. In Scene 3 of Act 3, Friar Laurence’s speech revealsRead MoreRomeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare893 Words   |  4 Pagesare. In the play Romeo and Juliet, by William Shakespeare, the playwright used the Nurse, Lord Capulet, and Friar Lawrence to show how taming the wills of the teens and forcing their wishes upon them could turn the play Romeo and Juliet into a tragic love story. The Nurse is one of the adults who is to blame for the tragic end of Romeo and Juliet.The Nurse is like Juliet’s mother and has a lot of trust towards the Nurse, but this changed when Juliet met Romeo. When Romeo and Juliet decided to getRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1197 Words   |  5 Pagesforbidding it’s deadly, referring of course to the classic William Shakespeare play of â€Å"Romeo and Juliet†, set in Verona, Italy. The play examines two families, the Montauges and the Capulets caught in an ongoing battle of hate, however two of the children manage to find love. All is not fair in love and war, and this play examines some examples of how love and hate correlate to each other in this captivating tale of â€Å"Romeo and Juliet†. It’s a feud so deep and long lasting it seems that nothingRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1287 Words   |  6 PagesLizzy Baginski English Composition 2 Mr. Spera March 10, 2015 Romeo and Juliet Research Paper The movie Romeo and Juliet is a modern classic film that took place in 1996. Overall this is a timeless story that everyone should go and watch. This movie has an intriguing plot line that tells the story of two feuding families, The Montagues and The Capulets, and how the children of these two different families fall in love. The two children overcome various obstacles such as hiding their chemistry fromRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet967 Words   |  4 Pagesof ‘Romeo and Juliet’ written by William Shakespeare. Shakespearean time was between the middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution and it was branded by religious changes. William Shakespeare is widely known as the greatest dramatist of all time. Born April 1564, Shakespeare’s play ‘Romeo and Juliet’ is no doubt one of his most famous pieces. ‘Romeo and Juliet’ was first published in 1597 and its tragic story of banned love still captures the creativity of its audien ce today. ‘Romeo and Juliet’, althoughRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet925 Words   |  4 Pagesmade by Romeo. This happens right after Romeo gets to Juliet’s grave, then meets Paris, fights Paris, and kills Paris.[a]Right before Paris dies, he says â€Å"Oh, I am slain! If thou be merciful, Open the tomb. Lay me with Juliet† (Shakespeare 5.3.72-73). Paris is brave and proud enough to tell Romeo, the person that kills him, to put him in the grave next to Juliet, who he was going to marry. Romeo’s true love for Juliet caused all of this in the first place. In the play, The Tragedy of Romeo and JulietRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet 966 Words   |  4 Pages Beauty Over Gold â€Å"Beauty provoketh thieves sooner than gold.--William Shakespeare, 1623. In his book As You Like It, William Shakespeare pointed out the supremacy of love rather than the want of gold and wealth. Truly, beauty is more important to thieves than wealth. Many of the thieves in this world would rather have an elegant woman than to obtain precious rubies. After all, what good is a prosperous man if he doesn’t have a charming woman? Two famous men grab my attention who didn’t fear for

Modern Day Slavery in the United States An Invisible Shadow Free Essays

When thinking of modern day slavery, it is impossible for the average person to comprehend that it is still going on within our own country today.   The issues of slavery and inequality have been a major part of the history of the United States, and the fact that they are still hidden behind walls of ignorance and fear are more than can be grasped by the human mind.   Modern day slavery   â€Å"exists not because today’s workers are immigrants or because some of them don’t have papers but because agriculture has always managed to sidestep the labor rules that are imposed upon other industries† (Bale, 1984, pg. We will write a custom essay sample on Modern Day Slavery in the United States: An Invisible Shadow or any similar topic only for you Order Now 5). It has always seemed as if morality was what our country had originally fought for when struggling with the issues of slavery, but the very fact our government and local politics have refused to accept the existence of migrant slavery in our country, due to the web of financial greed by layers of major industries, proves to be a major source of discrimination against the migrant workers who have entered our country to elevate their standards of poverty life. Over the years, many of our activists have approached the morality issues of slavery in the United States with the image of slavery coming to mind of trade ships bringing African slaves to our country, forcing them into slave labor against their will. What does not come to mind, which is why so many people find it hard to acknowledge slavery today, are images of Immokalee migrants living in housing owned by â€Å"the town’s largest landlord, a family named Blocker, owns several hundred old shacks and mobile homes, many rusting and mildew-stained, which can rent for upward of two hundred dollars a week, a square-footage rate approaching Manhattan† (Bale, 1984, pg. 2). Another image of slavery is of the migrant’s payday after working eight to twelve hours a day, six or seven days a week, â€Å"After charging workers a check-cashing fee, the brothers (the bosses) then garnished for rent, food, work equipment, the ride from Arizona (where they were picked up), and daily transportation to and from the fields. Whatever remained was usually spent on food at La Guadalupana† (Bale, 1984, pg.3). After this, the workers barely broke even. In addition, no utilities were provided in the rent for migrants, so this was also deducted. The labor contractors â€Å"exert near-absolute control over their workers’ lives; besides handling the payroll and deducting taxes, they are frequently the sole source of the workers’ food and housing, which in addition to the ride to and from the fields, they provide for a fee†. (Bale, 1984, pg. 2). Females themselves had their own brand of slavery which included rape and forced prostitution, â€Å"In 1998, Rogerio Cadena and fifteen others, including several relatives, were charged with smuggling twenty women and girls, some as young as fourteen, into the United States from Mexico with promises of jobs in housekeeping, landscaping, and child care. The women were made to pay a smuggling fee of more than two thousand dollars each and held in sexual slavery in trailer-home brothels in South Florida and the Carolinas†. (Bale, 1984, pg. 5) These women â€Å"were required to perform between fifteen and twenty-five sexual acts per day†, and â€Å"victims who became pregnant were forced to have abortions and then return to work within weeks; the cost of the abortion was added to their debt†. (Bale, 1984, pg. 5-6) The problem with all of this was that a migrant agriculture worker was â€Å"paid only 40 cents a bucket, which weighs thirty-two pounds† (Bale, 1984, pg. 2) which hardly made any of it worth it, if they had only known in advance. To calculate wages, a worker would have to pick 125 buckets a day to make a daily wage of $50. For the average citizen of the United States this would seem desolate wages, but for the Haitians, poor whites, Mexicans, and African-American migrant workers it was a fortune, as quoted by one migrant worker, â€Å"Farmwork in Mexico pays about five or six dollars a day – – when it’s available† (Bale, 1984, pd. 3). What they were not told is that once they arrived in the rich country of the United States, they would barely make a dime due to the high prices their bosses would charge them for living expenses â€Å"that were never discussed†. (Bale, 1984, pg. 3). Forced unknowingly into a slave life, the conditions of these migrant workers are the same as slaves earlier in our history. Similar to the African slaves, they are sold to owners or bosses, â€Å"the workers saw Nino write out a check to El Chaparro. They were told that the bosses had paid a thousand dollars for each of them† (Bale, 1984, pg. 3). They receive little, if any wages, as previously stated. And they become at the complete mercy of these abusive individuals, where â€Å"workers were forced to work six days a week, netting at most fifteen dollars a day. According to one Flores victim, female camp residents were raped, and gunfire was often used by guards to keep order†. (Bales, 1984, pg. 5). The sense of community of these migrant workers was nonexistent due to the language barrier of individual races, different cultures, and fear of reprisal from their bosses — of   â€Å"owners† who used threats of violence against them if they did not do as they were told. If it had been there, communication would have allowed them to seek help, which some actually did out of sheer desperation with many of the dying. Knowing these facts, it is almost difficult, if not impossible, to purchase products from companies such as Taco Bell, Tropicana, Coca-Cola, McDonalds, Wendy’s, and many others – – recognizing that their profit and products arrive through such â€Å"sweatshop like situations† (Bale, 1984, pg. 4) in our country. Many people have boycotted these products, such as Taco Bell, but only 1,000 workers have been rescued out of half-a-million migrant workers living in the United States in the year 2003. Appearing futile, the term â€Å"moral beauty† seems a laughable situation as we look back in retrospect. What is beautiful and moral about struggling migrant workers who are exhausted, hungry, and worried to death about the financial status of their families they have left in their home countries – – with no way out? But more than that, what is beautiful and moral about a country, whose stepping-stones of democracy were equality and anti-slavery, yet who now refuses to acknowledge such situations? Facts prove that migrant slavery exists in our country today, with people dying who were attempting to better themselves. What would have happened if we had welcomed by the same type of individuals when we first came to our new country, to â€Å"better our lives†? Would we have been more understanding and more apt to help the migrant workers in their plight? Or would we still look the other way until the slavery was so blatant we were forced to do something about it â€Å"so we would look good to those watching†. References Bales (1984). â€Å"Nobodies: Annals of Labor†, The New Yorker. The Conde Naste Publications, Inc. How to cite Modern Day Slavery in the United States: An Invisible Shadow, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

How does Oswald use the notion of contrast to create poetic effects on the reader Essay Example For Students

How does Oswald use the notion of contrast to create poetic effects on the reader ? Essay In her poem Dart, Alice Oswald creates, among other poetic techniques, contrast. She employs this in the whole poem but also within it and its different parts. She uses the notion of contrast through three main couples of themes: life and death, nature and human nature, and the pragmatic and the poetic. The first main couple of themes, life and death, gives a sense of reality in the poem, but athe same time can be related to unreality. This is because of the aspects of pragmatism and poetry. Dart starts by giving an identity concept: a walker is physically and psychologically discovering himself. The expression â€Å"moving alive† shows a detailed exploration of life; it show us the unusual logic of the poet: in this case unmoving but alive and moving but dead. The poet wrote this to emphasize the visual aspect of the man, what she sees when looking at him. In fact, the voice of the poem itself stands for identity: â€Å"summoning itself by speaking†. We notice, in parallel, the contrast between life and death through several words: â€Å"alive† and â€Å"bones† for example. The notion of time -in link with life and death- is as well important, and in a number of different ways; firstly we can see a contrast between the youth of the river and the old age of the man, and this can be related to the metaphorical word couple â€Å"morning† and â€Å"evening†. Secondly there is a notion of personal time, which is the walkers sense of time: â€Å"an hour in the morning is worth three in the evening†. We can literally understand through this quotation that there is a preference for mornings and this can be linked to tiredness as the man is qualified as â€Å"old†. Thirdly, the poet mentions an idea of eternity, and this suggesting cycles of life from generation to generation; it is life issuing from nature, from earth. Concerning the water, the river, we notice many sides if it which are expressed through positive aspects: reality and dream, as well as pragmatism and poetry; but also through a negative aspect: it is that a river is calm at the source of it but it can become dangerous later on and kill, hence the notion of death importantly present in the poem. There is a complicity, a union, a relationship between men and nature. And this is what Alice Oswald is trying to show us. The only contrast is that nature is benign, condescending (even if the water is shown, at times, to be dangerous, almost hungry for a life), while men sometimes use the water and the nature for his personal needs, not caring for the natures personal comfort; men own, control, and even pollute rivers and nature. For short, men disturb the peace of nature. So we have here two sets of voices: one poetic, where the man respects the nature, and one pragmatic, where the man disturbs the nature. The second main couple of themes, nature and human nature, is as well very effective in creating contrast in the poem. This is because both of these themes have several meanings and each of these definitions affect different parts of the poem. One of the meanings of nature is that it is a wild primitive state of existence, untouched and uninfluenced by man, civilization and artificiality. This especially concerns the forester and the woodnymph passage: the foresters tells let us know what he observes and sees, while the nymph explains what she feels. Shes the persona who represents nature and wild living; we see this through her lines which are more poetic, rhymed, visually well written and structured than the foresters lines. This definition as well concerns the stonewaller extract because we see here that Oswald gives importance to stones and that she knows them well -as it is a pure and natural object-: â€Å"I can read them†, â€Å"but its not just stones†. This efficiently shows that she respects nature and that she wont let it be touched or influenced by man and civilization. And finally, the swimmer passage is also concerned because we notice a real link, relation built up between the swimmer and the w ater: â€Å"I steered through rapids like a canoe† suggests that hes in control and guiding the water, but right after, â€Å"digging my hands in† shows how powerful the water might be and how fast the stream is, and â€Å"what am I, spelling the shapes of the letters with legs and arms† makes us feel like the body is becoming an onomatopoeia and part of the water, and this suggests a lack of control, unlike the first quotation. And again, this extract shows us how the river is preserved as well as nature, and that they have kept their wild and natural side. .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac , .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .postImageUrl , .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac , .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:hover , .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:visited , .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:active { border:0!important; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:active , .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9b2b69f33b251671043d41f63c4ce0ac:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Literary Techniques Poetry Analysis EssayAnother signification of nature is that it represents the fundamental qualities of a person or a thing. Identity and the presence of an essential character are implicated here; and this is why the walker extract has to be noticed. It is the very first passage of the poem and the walker is the first character evoked: â€Å"Whos this moving along the moor? An old man seeking and finding difficulty†. So we can say that, in a way, he opens the poem. Moreover, the author describes him: â€Å"An old man, fifty years a mountaineer†, â€Å" listen to the horrible keep-time of a man walking, rustling and jingling his keys at t he centre of his own noise†. So the notion of identity is clearly present here, as well as in the naturalist part. Indeed, we know what hes interested in, that he admires nature which makes this passage rather poetic than pragmatic. In parallel, the sound patterns such as â€Å"she loves songs, she belongs to the soundmarks of larks† express her relationship with nature and its beauty. We also notice some identity in the poacher and the fisherman and the bailiff passages; the poacher show us a particular attitude to the river. He seems possessive, uncaring and resentful of others. We notice as well the structure of this passage with short phrases to convey excitement: â€Å"On a S-bend. Not a sound.† Moreover, the use of informal language gives a colourful sense of character and identity: â€Å"pissed†, â€Å"tosser†, â€Å"leg it downriver†. In the fisherman and the bailiff extract we can see there is more a lack of confidence: â€Å"I fish like hell†. So he tries to find reassurance and contact with himself; he isolates himself in a natural world for this. But at the beginning we notice a confusion and a lack of individual identity; we move from one private and lonely voice (the fishermans voice), to a public role, in the bailiffs. This extract is about nature and fishing. After an identity meaning of nature, another signification is that it is the whole system of the existence, arrangement, forces and events of all physical life that are not controlled by man. This definition applies to the naturalist, the fisherman and the bailiff, the dreamer and the sealwatcher passages. The naturalist because all the natural aspects she observes and admires are totally independent from her and from man in general. The fisherman and the bailiff because, as for the naturalist, the event of the massive quantity of salmon coming up is entirely natural and independent from man. For the dreamer, the fact is that it is a complete imaginative exploration. He actually looses control of his weight: â€Å"not quite in full possession of his weight†, exactly like in water. And this is as well a kind of force of physical life that we cant control. Finally, the sealwatcher is also concerned because he talks about animal reproduction: â€Å"there the musky fishy genital smell of things not yet actual†, which is something in link with nature as well. The main definition of human nature also affects some of the extracts. Human nature can be defined as the unique elements that form a basic part of human life and distinguishes it from other animal life. We recognize this signification particularly through the naturalist and the swimmer parts: because in the swimmer passage we notice a reference to an animal: â€Å"we change ourselves into the fish dimension†. The word â€Å"into† particularly emphasizes the transformation implicated. And the naturalist extract is the one where we find the more animal enunciations: â€Å"frogs†, â€Å"Butterflies†, â€Å"heron†, â€Å"eel†, â€Å"otter†. In fact we notice that he pays no attention to capitals at the start of the sentences but that he does care capitalising animals; the importance given to nature and animals is then clearly shown and proved here. .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 , .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .postImageUrl , .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 , .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:hover , .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:visited , .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:active { border:0!important; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:active , .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9 .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub65454662172657bad6d514816956ee9:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Song and The Darkling Thrush EssaySo Alice Oswald does talk about nature at first, and then builds up human nature theme with and through it. By the way, her poem ends up with the part of the sealwatcher; the verb to seal also means to close up securely. So we can say that, at the end, the author seals her poem. Alice Oswald uses the notion of contrast through the whole poem and especially within three main couples of themes (life and death, nature and human nature, and pragmatism and poetry) and these essentially help feeding the poem with emotion and to communicate these feelings to the reader.

Leadership in Early Childhood Education

Question: Discuss about the Leadership in Early Childhood Education. Answer: Early Childhood Education is an integral field in the society as it focuses on empowering children and reducing poverty as well as educating children. The field for a long time has been run and managed by women who are considered better child nurses than men. Leadership in this field is very significant since it entails women leadership. The success of any given organization is usually attributed to good leadership. ECEC is a recognised field in Australia, embedded in the national as well as the state curriculum. The program is funded by the government through the ministry of education (Selznick, 2011). The personnel in the ECEC sector are based at the centre level and therefore their leadership is mainly based at the ECEC centres. Since their services are based at the ECEC centre level, leadership by the ECEC personnel is focussed on the leadership values executed when dealing with the ECEC children, parents to the children, the community under which they serve as well as their interactions with the governments (Aaker Joachimsthaler, 2012 . Having to deal with people from diverse backgrounds, it is essential for the ECEC personnel to possess special leadership skills to enable them handle the duties they are tasked with. Due to the nature of their job as well as the people they handle, ECEC personnel ought to be caring persons. Busch and Woodrow viewed the ancient character of the ECEC personnel as that which demands one to be a caring woman who is capable to deliver good service to the nation demonstrated by their quality labour as well as ready to sacrifice self for the communit y (Carroll, et al. 2008). Just like the leadership of any organization, good leadership in Early Childhood Development plays a role in ensuring that learning is effective in the Australian ECEC centres. The leadership a part from representing the image of the ECEC centres plays crucial roles that ensures that the centres are on their feet running (Northouse, 2012). The leaders plan, control, direct, lead, motivate, coordinate as well as recruit for the ECEC centres. Therefore leadership in ECEC is both a technical model, a behaviour, a matter of style as well as a philosophy. A leadership model comprises theories and ideas used in an attempt to providing effective leadership. Leadership in ECEC is a complicated phenomenon since it entails dealing with young children who are very delicate as well as dealing with parents and the community. To lead in this field, one requires not only to possess the qualities of an ordinary leader but to have exceptional leadership skills. The job entails dealing with children who may not be able to communicate, some who are violent, others with various medical conditions among other issues. Australian ECEC leadership is mostly based on team leadership where the personnel work as a unit to realize their goals. Moreover, the profession due to its nature calls for and encourages servant leadership where the personnel have to go an extra mile to ensure the safety and well-being of the young and delicate children. According to these theories, leaders are individuals born with exceptional leadership qualities and born with a destiny to lead. The leaders needed not to be trained on leadership skills since according to these theories, leaders are born and not made. Such leaders would simply excel in their leadership positions due to their personality (Avolio, et al. 2009). To support this theory, Shaw (1976) and Fraser (1978) conducted a research after which they came to the conclusion that leaders would score higher marks in innate traits such as intelligence, sociability, popularity and verbal ability. Nonetheless, Woodraw, Busch and HARD argue against the use of this theory in the ECEC since it is masculine and underplays the role of women leadership. Behavioural Ideals of leadership This theory looked at the effectiveness of a leader by observing the behaviours of the leader that were considered to be most effective. According to this theory, if a leader wants to be successful in his/her leadership, he/she must select one ideal style of behaviour that will see him/her perform the leadership duties effectively (Nahavandi, 2016). In 1964, Jane Mouton and Robert Blake came up with a Managerial Grid model to highlight the behavioural styles to be implemented in order for a leader to provide effective leadership. According to them as presented in the Management Grid, effective leadership should depict concern for people as well as a concern for production. An effective leader should have the interests of the people he/she is leading at heart and ensure that at all times the people feel motivated to perform the given tasks efficiently and to achieve a common goal (Gibson McDaniel, 2010). The personnel in the Australian ECEC put the interest of the children first. The leadership ensures that the safety of the child is taken care of before anything else. The ECEC leadership view children as their own and would to greater lengths to protect the child even from their parents whenever cases of any abuse arise. This theory is premised on the idea that the actions of a leader ought to change from time to time in accordance with the circumstances the leader is facing at the time of providing the leadership. This theory allows for and encourages flexibility of leaders to fit in with the changing trends in the leadership styles (Savage Honeycutt, 2011). The leader should adopt new and better leadership methods according to the situation at hand to ensure that they are able to address the problem presented amicably. Leadership in ECEC in Australia has adopted this model. The leadership is free and flexible and changes whenever need be for the sake of the children. For instance, the leadership will easily change the teaching methods whenever it is realized that the method being used is not friendly to a specific child. This leadership model puts great emphasis on the roles the leader has to perform. As opposed to coming up ideal ways of behaving at the organizing or trying to match the circumstances, functional theories of leadership puts emphasis on the crucial areas that needs the leaders urgent action in order for the leader to be considered effective in their leadership (Olson, 2008). The leadership of ECEC encourages performance of individual teachers. Through testing of the skills acquired by the children, the leadership is able to establish whether the techniques used by the individual teachers are effective or not. Integrated Psychological theories of leadership In this model of leadership, the leader employs the use of the ideals of the other four models of leadership while at the same time addresses the inner psychology of the leader. ECEC leadership observes the performance of the child as a result of the techniques used by the specific teachers; how the teacher handles the children as well as how flexible the teacher is when dealing with children of varied capabilities (Trompenaars Voerman, 2009). This technique ensures that the interests of the child come first. Leadership Styles in Early Childhood Education Country Club Style- Using this leadership style, the leadership in the Australian ECEC is concerned with the welfare of the children than just teaching the curriculum. The ECEC leader freely mingles with his juniors and creates a cordial relationship that makes the juniors happy. (Miner, 2015). The leader is more concerned with making the children happy while in school and feeling at home while in the school. Team Style-This style puts emphasis on the task equally as the emphasis put on the employees. Employees are encouraged to own the task and motivated to perform the task without feeling coerced. This is the best leadership style since it adopts a collaborative approach and encourages consultation. The leadership in the Australian ECEC puts emphasis in the welfare of the children as well as are concerned in teaching the curriculum as set by the national/state government to the children. Participative/democratic Style- The leadership in the Australian ECEC encourages and allows the participation of children in deciding the topics they want to learn, the places they wish to tour as well as the teachers they want to teach them. Through this style, the ECEC children acquire the necessary confidence to face the world. Delegative/Laissez-Fair Style- The leadership in the Australian ECEC program encourages children leadership. They do this by allowing the young children to participate in the running of some of the programmes as well as decisions of the ECEC centres. This starts right from class level where children are allowed to present before their colleagues acting as the teacher. This builds their confidence and enhances their leadership as well as presentation skills. At group level, children are allowed to set the rules of engagement when doing class duties. Leadership philosophies used in the Australian ECEC Leadership philosophy refers to the way leaders think and behave while in leadership. Through analysing the leadership philosophies, one is able to identify and explain essential aspects of leadership such as belifes, values, morality, ethics, society, civilization, relationships, politics among others (Hoel, et al. 2010). They include; Australian ECEC leadership encourages servant leadership where leaders put the interests of the children first. This philosophy eliminates materialistic vices such as corruption in leadership of the ECEC centres. A servant leader is not motivated by material gain in serving his subjects but rather by the passion for the job and love for the people. Good leadership calls for the leaders to be themselves and not to pretend to be who they are not. Australian ECEC leadership encourages authentic leadership and teaches the same to the children to make them authentic leaders of tomorrow. ECEC leaders are expected and encouraged to engage in morally upright behaviour and always know that the society looks up to them as role models. ECEC leaders should conduct themselves in a manner that replicates the values expected of them. They should avoid by all costs engaging in acts that will put the position they hold to question (Clarke, 2013). In conclusion, leadership is a position of great significance in the society. Leaders are viewed as role models to members of society. For this reason, leaders of ECEC centres should at all times conduct themselves in a manner that will protect the image of the position and promote good values to the society (Limsila Ogunlana, 2008). They should shun away from negative vices and use their position to be a blessing to the society and not to manipulate the society. References Aaker, D. A., Joachimsthaler, E. (2012). Brand leadership. Simon and Schuster. Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual review of psychology, 60, 421-449. Carroll, B., Levy, L., Richmond, D. (2008). Leadership as practice: Challenging the competency paradigm. Leadership, 4(4), 363-379. Clarke, S. (2013). Safety leadership: A meta?analytic review of transformational and transactional leadership styles as antecedents of safety behaviours. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(1), 22-49. Derue, D. S., Nahrgang, J. D., Wellman, N. E. D., Humphrey, S. E. (2011). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: An integration and meta?analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel psychology, 64(1), 7-52. Gibson, C. B., McDaniel, D. M. (2010). Moving beyond conventional wisdom: Advancements in cross-cultural theories of leadership, conflict, and teams. Perspectives on Psychological science, 5(4), 450-462. Hoel, H., Glas, L., Hetland, J., Cooper, C. L., Einarsen, S. (2010). Leadership styles as predictors of self?reported and observed workplace bullying. British Journal of Management, 21(2), 453-468. Miner, J. B. (2015). Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge. Nahavandi, A. (2016). The Art and Science of Leadership -Global Edition. Pearson. Ncube, L. B. (2010). Ubuntu: A transformative leadership philosophy. Journal of Leadership Studies, 4(3), 77-82. Northouse, P. G. (2012). Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage. Olson, K. (2008, October). The Relationship Between Stewardship Theory of Management and Employee Engagement: A Case Study of Exploration of Leadership Philosophy of a Professional Services Firm. In Midwest Academy of Management Annual Conference. Savage-Austin, A. R., Honeycutt, A. (2011). Servant leadership: A phenomenological study of practices, experiences, organizational effectiveness, and barriers. Journal of Business Economics Research (JBER), 9(1). Selznick, P. (2011). Leadership in administration: A sociological interpretation. Quid Pro Books. Trompenaars, F., Voerman, E. (2009). Servant Leadership Across Cultures: Harnessing the Strength of the World's Most Powerful Leadership Philosophy. Infinite Ideas. Limsila, K., Ogunlana, S. O. (2008). Performance and leadership outcome correlates of leadership styles and subordinate commitment. Engineering, construction and architectural management, 15(2), 164-184.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Killer Angels Essays - American Civil War, Gettysburg Campaign

Killer Angels The Battle of Gettysburg brought the dueling North and South together to the small town of Gettysburg and on the threshold of splitting the Union. Gettysburg was as close as the United States got to Armageddon and The Killer Angels gives the full day-to-day account of the battle that shaped America's future. Michael Shaara tells the story of the Battle of Gettysburg through the eyes of the generals and men involved in the action of the battle. The historical account of the Battle of Gettysburg gives the reader a chance to experience the battle personally and not the history book manner taught in schools. A historical novel gives the facts straightforward and provides no commentary by the people involved in history. The historical account of the Battle of Gettysburg, as seen in Killer Angels, provides the facts of the battle as seen through the eyes of Generals Robert E. Lee, Joshua Chamberlain, James Longstreet, and John Buford. The feelings and inner-thoughts of each General and the conditions of the battle are seen, heard, and felt by the reader in the historical account. Shaara takes historical license with letters, the words of the men, and documents written during the three hellish days of the battle. Shaara avoids historical opinion and provides his own opinion towards the Civil War and the people. The historical account of the Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg specifically, in Killer Angels conveys the attitude to toward war, attitude towards the Civil War, and cause for fighting the war of General Robert E. Lee, Joshua Chamberlain, James Longstreet, and John Buford. General Robert E. Lee gained stoic and legendary status as the heart and soul of the South in the Civil War, but many did not know his reasons and feelings for fighting the war. War and the slaughter of others did not interest Lee and he felt compassion for the Union. Lee had contradictory feelings towards war and says, "He was not only to serve in it but he was to lead it, to make the plans, and issue the orders to kill and burn and ruin...he could not do that" (Shaara 263). The Civil War is not in the taste of General Lee, but feels it is his duty, and he cannot just stand by and watch the war pass him by. Michael Shaara says of Lee's reason for fighting the Civil War ", He found that he had no choice...Lee could not raise his hand against his own. And so what then? To stand by and do nothing? It had nothing to do with causes; it was no longer a matter of vows" (Shaara 263). Shaara, through his commentary on General Lee, explains that Lee did not want to fight the war but had to. Lee felt it was his duty to fight for his fellow countrymen, but not for a cause, land, or slavery. "So it was no cause and no country he fought for, no ideal and no justice. He fought for his people, for the children, and the kin, and not even the land, because the land was worth the war, but the people were," General Lee says (Shaara 263). General Lee fights for himself and has no choice but to fight, knowing in the end that he might be wrong with his cause and pay the price someday. General Lee is not a proponent of war, but he will serve his country with honor and duty if necessary. A man of ideals and honor represent the character of Union Colonel Joshua Chamberlain. Being a man of education, Chamberlain knows the demeaning and repulsive nature of slavery and has come to fight to end it. Chamberlain hates the whole idea of the Civil War and the death and destruction that goes along with it. "I used my brother to plug a hole. Did it automatically as if he were expendable," says Chamberlain (Shaara 304). He hates the idea that men, including his brother, are dying out in the fight for slavery. The only reason he believes in the Civil War is that if he the North did not fight freedom would be tarnished and a great travesty would occur. Chamberlain is not a man of war and blood and doesn't relish war and its qualities. The idea of war in general to Chamberlain was ludicrous, as he once wrote "Man: The Killer Angel". Chamberlain believes all other wars have been unnecessary expect for the Civil War because it is a different kind of war.

Thursday, April 2, 2020

Roman Empire Essays - Geography Of Greece, Divided Regions

Roman Empire The Roman Empire was a strong hold over the Mediterranean for many years. Being the goal of most all world leaders, the Romans wanted land along with their power. They set their eyes on the valuable lands around them and the Mediterranean world as well as parts of Northern Europe and Asia. The Roman civilization and culture was much influenced by the Phonetians and Greeks. Later, the Romans were in control of these lands and their people. Three of their prize provinces held at much value to them were Thrace, Macedonia, Greece. These three lands were all located in the same area, providing a throughway to Rome for trade routes from China and the Middle east. Thrace, being on the south western coast of the Black Sea made it easy for the Romans to sail farther inland to what is today Russia. Greece was located on the Agean Sea and Macedonia was to the north of it tieing all three provinces together. Before Romans conquered Greece, there was a great civilization in itself that has influenced much of the Western culture of today. The Greeks were people that believe in beauty and the good of life. They people had a well developed government system, religion, architechural advances, literature, and beautiful art. Many scholars and philosophers had began to discover the longtime mysteries of the world. The Greeks had a system of writing and were very well educated. They were eventually taken over by King Philip V of Macedonia. He made and alliance with Greece and gave them military aid in order for control of their government and people. King Philip dreamed to make Macedonia a world power and intended on starting in the Mediterranean. Rome had also set these same goals for their future and there was nothing stopping them. One of Philips allies, Hanibel, went against him and fought him for Macedonia. The Macedonians allied with the Carthagenians and the Romans with the Aetolian League. By 168 B.C. Rome had Macedonia in their command. After this, the Archaen League in Greece sought freedom after the long rule of Macedonia. They tried to fight against the mighty army of the Romans, but this only resulted int he destruction of the city, Corinth. In 146 B.C. the Romans had abolished all leagues in Greece, and most trade was stopped in the big port cities. Rome would be over this land for sixty years to come. Meanwhile, the Romans realized the value of such things like gold. They soon found out that deposits of gold and other minerals were in the uncultivated land of Thrace. The people of Thrace were for the most part, barbaric, warlike, and unorganized. The Romans did not have as many troubles obtaining this land, considering the people werent as advanced as the Greeks. Thrace would link Rome closer to Asia through the port city of Byzantium. This city was along the major routes coming out of the middle east and China. The Romans left their mark on all of these areas from architecture to names. Byzantium was soon named Constantinople after the emperor, Constantine, moved the new capitol of Rome there. He was the first Christian empire of Rome. Today the church based in Constantinople (now known as Istanbul) is the Eastern Orthodox Church. Ninty-eight percent of Greeks are of this donomination. After the Romans realized they had destroyed the beautiful cities of Greece they rebuilt and restored many of the buildings, but they added their own culture to them in the same movement. Hadrian, a good emperor, beautified Athens and restored many other ruins. Constantine also restored much of Byzantium while he was there in his reign. Eventually, the Romans grew weak and the western portion of their empire fell to the invaders that would soon make their demise. After Constatine had moved to the east and he left, the empire kept dividing into east and west. While the west was on raided regularly the Germanic visgoths crossed the Danube to settle in Roman territory. This tribe became allies with the Romans but soon revolted to crush and defeat the Romans. This defeat made a domino affect that the Romans could not control leading to their fall. History Essays

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Verbal Aggression Essays - Behaviorism, Aggression, Free Essays

Verbal Aggression Essays - Behaviorism, Aggression, Free Essays Verbal Aggression Verbal aggression is message behavior which attacks a person's self-concept in order to deliver psychological pain.(Infante, 1995) Studies of verbal aggression have focused primarily on children and adolescents in educational and social settings. Very few studies were found to examine verbal aggression in adults in the workplace.(Ebbesen, Duncan, Konecni, 1974) The consequences of verbal aggression in the workplace can lead to social isolation, job related stress, health related problems, as well as problems in career advancement. It therefore should be considered important, for the individual and management, to identify and address the causes of verbal aggression. This program attempts to understand verbal aggression by 1) identifying the various functions of verbal aggression. 2) identifying the antecedent conditions of verbal aggression. 3) Avoiding the antecedent conditions of verbal aggression. Method Subject The subject, Shirley J., is a 49 year old African American female. Shirley J. has several advanced degrees and is employed as a school psychologist in a metropolitan school district. She is married with two adult children. The subject readily agreed that the target behavior, verbal aggression, is a problem as it interferes with her relationships with others. She was enthusiastic in her desire to reduce, if not eliminate, this behavior. It would seem that self-monitoring for verbal aggression and antecedent control would be valuable as it would allow for consistent avoidance of verbal aggression. As a school psychologist the subject was very familiar with the basic principles of applied behavioral analysis and frequently offered programmatic suggestions. A behavioral contract was developed jointly between the therapist and subject. The contract outlined the target behavior, success criteria, and individual responsibilities of the therapist and subject. (see Appendix A) Apparatus A basic checklist was used to document the frequency of verbal aggression on a daily basis. The checklist was designed to track only the occurrence of the behavior. It was felt by the therapist that the content of the verbally aggressive message would be too open for subjective interpretation and that no meaningful data would be gained from such documentation. In addition the subject made frequent comments of significant success or failure in avoiding verbal aggression for discussion with the therapist. The weekly discussions were used to evaluate the appropriateness of the procedures used and make any necessary adjustments to the program. Procedure For the first two weeks of the program no intervention was applied. Given that the subject self-reported that verbal aggression was a problem it was important to determine if the frequency of the behavior merited intervention. Therefore, the subject documented the daily frequency of verbal aggression. The results of the baseline period revealed a high rate of verbal aggression. (see Appendix B) Given the results of the baseline data as well as the demanding, often stressful, nature of the subjects job, it was mutually agreed that reducing verbal aggression would be the focus of the program. Verbal aggression was defined as cursing, yelling, and screaming at others. The agreed upon goals of the program was to decrease verbal aggression by 75% of baseline for four consecutive weeks. Treatment would consist of identifying and avoiding the antecedent conditions to verbal aggression. Avoidance of the antecedents is considered less restrictive, more proactive, and most effective. During the initial consultation it was determined that the antecedent conditions included, but was not limited to: work stress, time of day, verbal behavior of others (ie. tone of voice, inflection of voice and content of conversation, etc.), and non-verbal behavior of others (ie. facial expression, body posture, eye contact, etc.). In addition, the subject was required to self monitor for the following antecedents: clenched fists, tight jaw, rapid heart beat, and the emotions of anger, frustration and disappointment. Lastly, it was suggested by Infante (1995) that appropriate strategy must be taken to prevent verbal aggression from escalating. Successful avoidance of the antecedent conditions consisted of removing oneself from stressful situations, when possible, as well as not responding verbally when provoked. Weekly consultation revealed that verbal aggression was most often used to: 1) Escape demand situations. 2) Avoid demand situations. 3) Relieve job stress. The subject was to document the frequency of verbal aggression and record the circumstances of significant success or failure during the work week for discussion at weekly consultation sessions. A schedule of

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Mental Health Parity Act

Mental Health Parity Act In September 2007, the United States Senate collectively passed the Mental Health Parity Act (MPHA) of 2007. If the Act passes, it will ensure that private health insurance plans provide equal coverage for mental health as it would for physical health. In which case, insurers cannot establish different financial requirements for mental health, such as deductibles, co-pays, annual and lifetime limits. Thus, health plans will no longer ban discriminatory limits on number of outpatient visits and days of inpatient coverage for mental health care services, and prevent state laws affecting financial requirements and treatment limitations for mental health care services.The concept of parity means equal treatment for mental health services as it would for medical and surgical services. Parity is important because it demonstrates desirability for policyholders to seek mental health treatment, thereby taking a preventative care approach that will possibly reduce costs at many levels. Like ac cess to general medical care, access to mental health care can play an important role in whether people receive the treatment.Maryland Health Insurance Plan Federal Press Annou...Most health insurance includes mental health benefits. However, such benefits are more limited than medical/surgical benefits especially as it relates to the number of visits covered, higher patient cost-sharing requirements, and limits on total expenses covered by the plan.According to the American Psychological Association (APA), two third of 44 million Americans with mental disorders either are under-treated or receiving no treatment at all. Moreover, recent research indicates that more than one out of four American has a diagnosable mental disorder, but the majority cannot afford treatment (Maxfield, Achman, Buck, Teich, 2007, p. 83). In 1999, approximately 76% of the United States population had some mental health benefits (Maxfield, Achman, Buck, Teich, 2007, p. 94). Yet, less than half (about 44%) of the U.S. population had mental health benefits...

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Budgeting as a form of management control Essay

Budgeting as a form of management control - Essay Example Budgeting is a very useful tool in businesses. The benefits to be gained from budgeting are numerous and are available to all companies inclusive of Production Solutions Ltd. It ensures the achievement of the organisation’s objectives (BPP 1998) by forcing managers to carry out an assessment of what may happen in the future and set detailed plans for achieving the targeted results for the functional departments in the organisation. It also takes into consideration the problems that are likely to be encountered. Budgeting communicates ideas and plans (BPP 1998) so as to ensure that each employee that is affected by the plan is aware of his or her role in helping the organisation to achieve its goals. Communication can either be two-way or one-way. Two-way communication allows for dialogue until an understanding exists of what exactly needs to be done. One way communication takes place when management gives instructions or orders to subordinates to perform a task.Budgeting can a lso coordinate activities among the various departments at Production Solutions Ltd to ensure that there is full integration of the efforts to achieve the goals that have been set. In this respect the sales expected will be communicated in the sales forecast and the production department will base its production plans on the sales forecasted. The purchasing department will plan its purchases based on the amount of buffer stock it needs to maintain at all times and in conjunction with the production plan. Budgeting can provide a framework for responsibility accounting (BPP 1998) by making the different functional departments or budget centres at Production Solutions Ltd responsible for achieving their plans for the operations under their control. Budgeting can also establish a system of control by way of managers comparing the actual results with the plan (BPP 1998). Any deviation from the plan needs to be investigated and appropriate actions taken to close the gap between the result s and the plan. Additionally, budgeting can be used to motivate employees to improve their performance by offering them rewards if they meet their targets. BPP 1992 suggests that two levels of attainment should be set so as to challenge employees. â€Å"A minimum expectations budget and a desired standards budget which provides some sort of challenge to employees†. The appraisal system lets them know how badly or how well they are doing and what they can do to improve performance if they are performing below standard. The cash budget will indicate cash surplus and cash requirements. Therefore, management can make decisions on how to address the shortfall where this exist. The cash budget for the Company suggests that it may not be a good idea to carry out the plans noted as it could place the company in a worse position than it is in currently. The increased sales and the resultant changes in the credit terms will affect the profits and the cash flow position respectively. At tention should be placed on preparing a master budget which will link or integrate the various functions in the organisation. A master budget is an essential management tool that communicates management’

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Aboriginal perspectives and science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Aboriginal perspectives and science - Essay Example The concept of indigenous science is very unfamiliar to most Canadian education systems. The education policies that was developed by the Ontario first nation was to provide a framework that will provide institutions with a strategic policy natural systems context within which Ministry of Education and school boards can work together to improve the academic performance of the non-aboriginal students. As described by Michell, Herman and Yvonne in ``Learning Indigenous science from place`` (pg. 6), ‘Aboriginal perspective of indigenous science is a study of natural system that contributes to a holistic view of the environment and the role of human beings in the environment’. This holistic nature of the indigenous science is composed of physical, intellectual, affective and spiritual domains of learning. For this reason the aboriginal community have wished to incorporate cultural teaching within mainstream or other institutional curricula, but there was a concern that was r aised based on the need to help universities systems to prepare students to choose their careers within scientific discipline. The framework provided in library website, also clarifies the roles and relationships of the ministry to Inuit students achieve their education goals and close the gap in academic achievement with the non-aboriginal students. A guideline emerged from a certain research project that aimed at fostering collaboration among a diverse range of group of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal educators and scientist. The indigenous study has experienced acknowledgement within traditional ways and cultural practices as a method for sharing, learning, and collecting knowledge development and maintenance. The purpose of the group of Aboriginal students, educators and scientist is to begin the conservations to envision, discuss, and to clarify a philosophy and framework of aboriginal science. The aboriginal people of the 21st century have been so diverse such that their personal beliefs and ideologies as to any other cultural and ethnic group makes it important for educators to realize that these people have traditionally held and have maintained unique perspective that is much different from that of non-aboriginal peoples. The implications of the research have been anticipated to nature all learners in science schools regar dless of their cultural background. Aikenhead (2006, Pg. 7), states that the believe of incorporating Aboriginal perspectives in the school of science will help nature students’ and educators’ in understanding and appreciating indigenous knowledge systems that have not that been a major part of many institutions curriculum in the past. The primary connections of indigenous perspectives framework is aiming to accelerate science and literacy learning outcome for indigenous students and increase non-aboriginal students teachers awareness and understanding of the indigenous perspectives. It also acknowledges the contribution of those involved with development of the indigenous perspectives framework which is based on national research findings and collaboration with Aboriginal groups. Discussion Aboriginal people have viewed themselves to be part of intimately connected individuals and therefore they have acted as the guide to the way in which people and visitors in need a re to be helped traditionally. There have been a lot of aboriginal resources that have described and indicated the role of indigenous science. The need to integrate aboriginal perspectives into the science curriculum in most countries is clear and immediate. Aboriginal resources are used to help understand the knowledge of indigenous

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

As It Is in Heaven Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

As It Is in Heaven - Essay Example At the beginning, the presence of the church environment gives an assumption that everything is going well in this society. It is not until every individual’s privacy is revealed that the viewer realizes that family issues are a society planning issues that has remained largely unresolved. When Daniel sought refuge in his home village, he is received by a church minister who hands him a bible. Daniel is used to capitalistic life in town, and he tries to shun social life as seen when he turned down the minister’s invitation to a diner. However, the pressure from the church choir and music in him is too high and he accepts to join and train the choir members. The armature singers use the music to placate their familial challenges. In their chapter seven article Massey and Denton (1993) start by quoting Pam Grier who analyzes that people are hopeless in the society because their daily lives are challenging, hence prompting them to go to some sort of entertainment. In this film, music is the outlet that the choir members chose to indulge in to release their live stresses. David teaches them how to sing as they listen to their hearts, how to perfect their vocals and how to cooperate and not compete in their common endeavors. This goal is of great importance because it symbolizes the way family institution should function in the society. It is a contrast of how the families in the movie have been operating and how women have been enduring their problems. For instance, Daniel is caught in a web of attention when several women from the choir start competing for his attention. His attention was caught by Lena, a young attractive girl in the choir. As their love grows, the personal problems of the other choir members confront him. This is a microcosmic example of the family issues in the society. For example, Inger the minister’s wife also secretly admires Daniels because she is sexually repressed. The woman is enduring a failed sexual relationship w ith her husband. This is a depiction of how the church has failed to plan family matters. The extreme of this irony is when the church minister becomes jealous when the choir starts succeeding. He is threatened by the unity and the zeal of the choir. He tries to shatter their dreams but he failed and this failure leads to his ultimate nervous breakdown. Daniel engages the choir members into lessons that liberate them, and the first person to be set free is the minister’s wife. Inger later goes to her husband and tells him that she no longer believes in sin. She claimed that their marriage is spoilt by the religion, which was brought to the community by outsiders. Gabriella is a highly talented singer in the choir, but her husband always batters her and the village is not concerned; everyone is minding his own business. It was Gabriella’s husband, Connie who schooled with Daniel and drove Daniel out of the village. Connie is later left by his wife and he blames Daniel a nd the choir for influencing his wife wrongly. He attacks and assaults Daniel, an act that sends him to jail. Individual freedom and the society relation with members The movie gives an excellent depiction of how individual freedom is compromized by the society members. At the beginning of the movie, the viewer meets Daniel who has already returned to his village after

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Your task is to develop a model which could be used to inform an Essay

Your task is to develop a model which could be used to inform an economic evaluation - Essay Example It can be seen that the maximum amount of money is spend on the diagnostic procedure- echocardiogram. Around 142.16 $ is spend for this. Then the model included other primary evaluations in health care for the particular disease as ECG, TFT, INR, FBC, coagulation studies and medication. The total cost incurred for the primary visit is 418. 08. There have been reviews on the increased cost of ECG on adolescents and neonates. It is estimated that cost effectiveness was at peak between [,000 in 14 year olds and $ 204000 in screening done in 8 year children for the life saved per year. (Saul, Samuel & Gidding 2014). Both warfarin and aspirin are anti-coagulants, which are administered to prevent the clot formation in the blood vessels of heart, which may lead to cardiovascular diseases. Warfarin and aspirin were administered in patients at risk of developing heart problems. Risk category included obese patients, patients with diabetes mellitus. It may seen that, the cost spent for visit of general practitioner without the administration of any medication and with the prescription of aspirin was the same (552,992 $). The cost spent for speciality visit was same for all three categories. The use of diagnostic procedures like ECG and Echocardiogram spent the same amount. The amount of money spent on TFT is same for all the three categories. No amount of money was additionally spent on INR, FBC, and coagulation studies on the administration of aspirin and warfarin. When the total cost was estimated along with the administration of medication and frequency of use, less amount of money was spent when aspirin was used for prevention. After deploying this model for three years, the end result was found use of aspirin prevented the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases in comparison with administration of warfarin and without any intervention. This indicates that this model may be used in the prevention of

Friday, January 31, 2020

Annotated Bibliography Essay Example for Free

Annotated Bibliography Essay In this assessment I shall describe an Annotated Bibliography on Autistic Spectrum Disorder. The important factors of inclusion in educational settings will be discussed and how parents as partners can help children’s development. Autism is a condition which affects children’s development their whole life. Autism is a brain disorder that is diagnosed normally in early childhood and autistic children can show bad behaviour and can become fairly aggressive and temperamental. Many education settings have provided additional support to young children alongside other children, however this is to include an inclusive practice. Children with autism have many difficulties in three main areas: 1) Social Awareness Find making friends and interacting with others very difficult, and do not always make eye contact when someone is talking to them. 2) Language Communication Find it hard to explain how their feeling and what their thinking and they also communicate in high pitch tones and have severe delay in speech. 3) Imagination – Do not always understand that others have thoughts and feelings and have limited imagination. Reid (2005, p.29) quotes â€Å"There may also be evidence of obsessive and inappropriate behaviours. Some students within this spectrum may also have limited imaginative thought†. In society before, children with autism were misunderstood and their negative behaviour was labelled and because of their negative behaviour children were punished frequently. During that time there was no guidance and support available for children with autism from the government and local authorities. There was none specialised equipment/resources for children to learn and develop further, which would help with this particular disability. There are many barriers for children with autism in mainstream schools like adapting activities, schools may not have enough space and specialised equipment for making the activity adaptable. Children may have certain needs to be tended to so staff need to be trained to deal with children with autism, so some staff would need further training. However, another barrier could be that the parents do not admit that their child has autism, so parents do not attend meetings with staff and acquire the right guidance and support. Some parents may feel that their child is not normal, as the community they come from might have an ideal image of a family, for instance referring to a child who has perfect physical appearance. The medical model sees society or a practice to cure a disability to fit into society, and the social model sees that the child is not the problem, but the attitudes towards disability is the problem. Adults need to provide children with a safe and enabling environment for them to learn and develop in, so children with autism should be treated equally and fairly, like all children and must feel included in their environment. Meanwhile, when providing activities for children with autism adults must give children time for themselves and let them explore, so they can learn at their own pace. Reid (2005, p. 29) states that â€Å"It is important to allow for opportunities that will enable the student some time on his/her own†. However the adult should also involve other children when doing a specific activity for the child with autism, so the child does not feel alone, even though children with autism prefer to play alone. The adult should support and encourage the child and help them complete the activity, by helping the child using hand in hand contact for example the adult holding the child’s hand etc. The adult’s role is to talk to the children slowly and calmly, and use simple words so they understand and an effort should be made towards them so they feel the sense of security. Vygotsky was a theorist and his theory was on the Zone of Potential Development (ZPD), his theory stresses the importance of when a more knowledgeable adult/child helps a less knowledgeable child, so by helping him/her complete the task he/she could not done alone, he called this ZPD. Vygotsky saw that adults need to be involved with children strongly. Lindon (1998, p.66) clearly states â€Å"He saw early language as an important social tool for children which brought them deliberately into contact with others†. Adults should provide children with activities where they can use all their senses like touch, smell, taste, sound and sight, so providing them toys with flashing lights, soft toys and puppets which will show affection etc. Vygotskys theory is seen as a scaffolding process where the child imitates the practitioner’s actions, and is a one to one process centring the child individual needs first. Involving parents in these situations can be very difficult, so it is very important to build a relationship with trust and respect, this will help the parent to feel comfortable. Cheminais (2006, p. 101) quotes that â€Å"Clear communication and mutual respect help to promote positive productive working relationships between the two partners†. In my nursery we have a folder for a child with autism and in that folder we have IEP sheets where we constantly observe and monitor the child. We also give some IEP sheets to the parent as well so they also monitor the child at home, this helps us to see how the child is doing at home and at nursery. We then have meetings with the parents, where we can discuss the child’s progress, this helps us to see the stage of development. Furthermore these sheets help us to plan and provide for the child further. Communication books can also help as the parent can read them, as this will have the child’s daily routine written in, so parents will feel reassured that their child is safe. (Johnston and William, 2009, p.399-402) Schools and settings can support children with autism by having SENCO’s (Special educational needs co-ordinator), so children who need extra support can have one to one attention from one main person. Meanwhile they can provide specialised resources like sensory based toys like flashing light toys. Also having family workers can help children, as they can support and guide parents, by having regular sessions where they can discuss where the child needs help and if necessary involve outside agencies. An inclusive environment for children with autism is essential for children to reach their full potential, as this will build their self esteem and confidence. The environment must be warm and friendly for children and parents, however having posters of children with SEN will help children’s parents see there are many types of SEN children. The room must be facilitated to meet children’s needs for example tables and chairs must be at the child’s level and layout of the room must be spacious for wheelchair users, so ramps and stair lifts must be provided. Activities must be adaptable for children with, so they can participate and learn from different experiences, just like all children. Children with autism must be given a range of resources/specialist equipment, therefore this will meet their needs so they are equally included. Resources like flash cards, textured materials, soft toys, flashing lights, also natural resources aswel like plants, must be provided as children with autism respond to sensing materials. In my nursery where I work, there is a child with autism, he likes to line objects horizontally and vertically and when playing he constantly repeats the same pattern. The child repeats the same pattern again and again, he shows some independence and confidence in this situation, and repeats his schema. Piaget was a theorist and his idea of schema was, Lindon (1998, p. 72) says â€Å"Patterns of behaviour that are linked through a theme and from which a child generalises and explores in different situations†. There are many legal requirements that support the actions which need to be taken when a child may have special needs. The Disability Discrimination Act (1995) supports the actions which need to be taken, with children with SEN; this Act says that it would be illegal for settings not to make reasonable adjustments for people who have a disability. A perfect example of effective practice is Terry, J (2009, p.30) says â€Å"Autism is recognised as a disability under the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995 (DCSF, 2009), and some children and young people will have associated or additional complex developmental difficulties that require the high level of co-ordinated support delivered by Early Support†. The Special Education Needs Disability Act (2001) also supports children with SEN. This Act is separated in two sections, part one develops the framework of SEN, to reinforce the rights of parents and their children to enter mainstream education and part two develops the Disability Discrimination Act (1995) to expand the rights of SEN children in schools. The main key points of these Acts are that children with disabilities are treated well, and that they are entitled to study the National Curriculum. In conclusion it is very important for schools and settings to provide a learning and friendly environment for children with autism. Therefore they must provide useful and quality resources and specialised equipment to meet children’s individual needs, so children can reach their utmost best, build their self esteem and confidence and also enjoy themselves. Schools and settings can also work with outside agencies and help to meet parents and children’s needs. As a result parents can get advice and support from other professionals and other agencies, on the other hand children’s certain needs can be tend to and learning experiences maximised. All staff must be trained to deal with children with autism so they can observe, plan and provide for children with certain needs which need to be met. So then children can develop their next stage of development, Furthermore parents working with teachers can help children’s development enormously as their needs are most likely to be met. As parents are their primary carers, so they know their child/children’s likes, dislikes and interests. Staff can then plan and provide children with challenging activities which children will enjoy and develop further.